Daosizm has occurbed in China on a boundary VI — V centuries BC Its founder the legendary aged man Lao-tszy who has abandoned after the unique book «is considered the Dao of Dye a jing» in which one teaching philosophy are stated. At philosophy centre daosizma the idea of the multiple-purpose Trajectory of all things – the Dao lies. It spawns the whole world and all appearances, itself thus remaining perpetually invisible and not displayed.
Lao-tszy was born in 604 BC in the field of the state Chu Ku (a province Hubei in the Peoples Republic of China). "Lao-tszy" («the Old son») is its nickname as, according to a legend, it old was more narrow at a birth. His name of Lie Po Young or Lie Ayr. Abandoning country for the reason that the dynasty Chow began to tend to downgrade, he has written «the Dao of Dye Tszin» at the desire of the official guarding boundary.
The maiden paragraph of the book states: «the Dao which one can be expressed in words, not is a perpetually Dao…» It is considered also that Lao-tszy only has resurrected daosizm emperor Juan Di (2693 — 2547 BC was which one founder), and the method of Taoist meditation was known in China long before Lao-tszy. Taoist teaching differently term as teaching Juan-Lao.
Three patriarchs daosizma Lao-tszy, Chzhuan-tszy, Le-tszy match up concept "Dao" only to concept "Trajectory". Thus in their concept it is told nothing about the purpose, about mokshe, a nirvana, a clarification, God. The main thing for everyone – to discover a trajectory. But it cannot be discovered, following somebody as the Dao is similar to flying of an auk in the root which one does not reserve traces. «The dao means to be on the Trajectory and to abide so that not to be distinct from the Trajectory. This existence is uniform: we are not partitioned off from it. Separation, idea of individuality are rather illusory.
We are bridged together, we a unit… ».
The idea of the Dao had further huge meaning in the chan-Buddhism, neokonfutsianstve, and also in all martial arts of the East. The concept "dzjutsu" ("art") is not casual changed on "to" ("trajectory") in process of development of Japanese martial arts, after all, on a being, the Dao is one of basic principles of meditation which one also has no purpose, and is it during each true moment.
The dao is out of the sensual world, but is perpetually existing first principle and a jerk of any appearance, is displayed in a numberless amount of fashions and changes. A dao it is impossible to contradict – the person should follow the Dao, foster it and begin to see clearly its implication in itself. Only thus it is possible to attain the higher wisdom. In Dao comprehension the sense of practice ushu, and daily agings and skill finishing in martial art to perfection – only indispensable steps on a trajectory of this comprehension is concluded also. Thus some authors compare Dao comprehension to such type of extremal activity, as boating on a cable rope:« If you go on a cable rope you discover two things: the thinking is shut down because of retention of hazard and when you really equilibrate, neither to the left, nor to the right, precisely in the middle, great silence descends on you, such about which one you did not suspect earlier. And so happens in all (especially in martial arts – primech. A bus). All life is a boating on a cable rope ». In this case the treatment of concept of the Dao is similar with Buddhist« a median trajectory ».
One of basic concepts not only Taoist teaching, but also the theory of martial arts is "tsi". This term has no direct analogue in one tongue, but it can be translated words "pneuma" or "energy", perceiving them a certain multiple-purpose space substance, peculiar pervotkan a cosmos, having energetic nature and circulating in the person.
The higher creative force contributing in self-realisation of the person, strong-willed pulse () – will of the Root implemented in the person is. Celestial pulse regulates circulation tsi, and tsi, in turn, boosts physical force. From here it is born well-known in ushu a principle of "three internal correspondences»: each activity of the person is shaped by will (), (leah) tsi and physical force. For reaching of harmony of these three initiations the fighter should reach states of an absolute peace of mind and then he becomes capable to perceive pulses of natural naturalness. Its any activity or even an intention will be any more activity of the person, and Dao superactivity.
Exterior driving in ushu is an effect of ecumenical conversion: fulfilling receptions, the person endures Cosmos life. The complex initiation is a sharing in and jan, end of movements – passage in and jan in a state of original inextensibility, that is the Great limit. The person is transmuted into a messenger between heaven and earth, between an interior and exterior reality.
Following a flow of natural changes, it incorporates all phenomena of the world of forms, having stripped characteristic reason. The person reincarnates in the certain space value realising vpletennost in a tissue of the world. If from the Root the person gained energy jan-tsi to charge a skew field with energy in-tsi, it was necessary «to root in the Earth». The principle of a steady stand is connected To this standing in many styles ushu. Implementation of a principle of "rootage" are meditativno the breathing exercises executable in high stands without driving («long-pillar stand»).
The person represented a certain Miniuniverse in which one the certain part of a skew field matches to the macrocosmical initiation. Integrity of this Miniuniverse predetermined spiritually-corporal unity of the person.
The corporality generally was perceived as a potentiality of a physical skew field to lead spiritual life, that is the indivisible prenatal unity of the spiritual was implied and physical has begun. For example, the effort (jing) equally radiates both from a locomotorium, and from strong-willed pulse and depends not only from physical trenirovannosti, but also on a special morale of consciousness. (Leah) at effort implementation will be involved not only physical force, but also circulation tsi in an organism. The concept of shock in ushu meant implementation of spiritually-physical unity: its plotting could be begun by means of physical force, and to conclude burst tsi.
Taoist hollow is the world in a potency. Therefore, speaking about sense ushu as resetting to original hollow, it is necessary to mean constant overcoming of external shapes (movements, receptions) behind which one the essence source ushu, that is the Dao is unclosed. One of the major filosofsko-psychological principles daosizma is the naturalness principle (tszyzhan). Spontaneous naturalness in the nature world is implication of activity of the Dao. With reference to ushu (tajtszitsjuan) this principle demanded, that driving of the fighter were maximum unchained and spontaneous, originating as if is spontaneous and flowing in the absence of the realised motivating. As a result activity was committed spontaneously according to the Taoist concept nedejanija ("uvej"). It was thus relevant, that laws of natural driving of all parts of a human skew field were not broken. The interior calmness and slackness should combine with constant availability of consciousness to adequate and a fast response on exterior pulses.
The dao has no form, but motions ushu shape the changes spawned by this trajectory. In the Chinese tradition it was termed «to yield the form to shapeless». Such driving which one radiated from inside the person was considered as true, instead of was fulfilled by command or under the strong-willed command. In daosizme the concept of exterior simplicity of movements in ushu as most important thing – not engineering complication of reception, and capability to uncover through this reception depth of congenital properties of the person has been formulated. Only then activity will be effective.
The ideal fashion of the foreman ushu matches to an ideal fashion of the commander.
Both that and another are people of out-of-limit properties. Their qualities – to begin to see clearly hidden and to use hollow (Dao), ability to be in harmony with celestial conversion in and jan. Then polkovodcheskoe ability allows to conquer, being not aggressive as human policy, and «great not act», that is the Dao running is used not. A duel or battle it is not simple a footprint of satellite beam of crash of certain space forces, and realified, materialised, the most this crash, its earth reality. The ancient tract on military arts «tszi» («36 plots») sets up to Sanshilju 36 methods of management battle, but methods featured in it are applicable and to a duel of two fighters as have the multiple-purpose character. Single combat or battle of two armies is interpreted by means of categories in and jan: cracked eggs is their infinite passage, withstanding of soft and rigid.
Taoist systems of interior ageing, psychopractice and adjustment of circulation of interior energy tsi became the relevant effluent Chinese ushu.
These systems have spotted internal spiritual character of martial arts – any of them does not do without section "nejgun" ("internal work") or "nejdan" («vnutrennja alchemy») thanks to which one the effort a jing at the expense of control of consciousness and circulations tsi in an organism is attained. The system nejgun rendezvoused the person with spiritual powers of a universe and simultaneously preserved it against ill effects.
It is necessary to mark that in daosizme there is a concept "vejdan" «exterior alchemy» which one purpose was also immortality reaching, but at the expense of application of various elixirs and pills, usages of amulets, spells, etc. the Great value was attached ritual section of teaching.
It is considered that vejdan has originated later, than nejdan, and has ceased the existence approximately to ((((to century. However «the internal alchemy» borrowed to some degree ritualization of "exterior alchemy», and also its notional apparatus.
The most ancient procedures of interior art are procedures "daoin", "tuna" and "chi kung" («skill in control tsi»). Interior art in the core is connected to operation of the consciousness stimulated by a creative message of will, and breathing exercises represent only indispensable accessory. Nejgun is not only a complex of breathing and meditative exercises, hygienic and dietologicheskih prescriptions, but also a type of spiritual self-education. Effluents nejgun are connected to secret art of the Taoist magicians who were setting as the purpose reaching of immortality by interflow to the Dao and an enlightenment of the characteristic original nature.
Schools Chinese ushu, along with meditative practice and sacramental, borrowed at daosov and morally-ethical standard as virtues universal were the first step on a great trajectory to immortality. A certain row of prescriptions was required to be fulfilled not only daosam, but also to simple virtuous people. First of all it is five prohibitions: not to slay, not to drink some wine, not to lie, not to steal, not to commit adultery, and also ten kind acts: to honour parents, to observe fidelity to the mister and the trainer, to feel pity for all tvarjam, to help sufferers even to the detriment of itself, to release on will of animals and auks, to raise bridges, to plant trees, to plot home units and pits at roads, to catechize unreasonable people.
Usage of Taoist procedures in ushu has led to tight stranding of improving aspect with battle, to compulsory use of dyhatelno-meditative exercises. Methods nejgun were held down in the strict secret and methods of control tsi were uncovered by a current to only selected pupils at the instruction final stage. For comprehension of diverse life, extension of human life procedures daoin – complexes of improving breathing and gym exercises for realisation tsi on ports of a skew field and a slenderness appropriation were used.
The trajectory of enhancement of the characteristic nature began with mollification, that is reaching of a reconciliation of soul – the major property of the Dao. When in and jan dwell, they are bridged, spawning internal indistinguishability of any opposites. The most ancient technicians of enhancement of a skew field and psychopractice were implemented through simulation of animals – in gymnastics daoin there are such exercises as «a scrambling bear», «the auk who has been drawn out aloft», «a washing monkey» and so forth They symbolose a natural initiation and resetting of the person in a naturalness bosom. Later fashions of animals have discovered the reflex in styles ushu. «The play of five beasts» ("utsinsi") is considered the legendary creator of a complex Taoist vrachevatel Hua That. Further utsinsi has been developed by legendary magician Tao Huntszin who has added its several types of breath.
In VII century the philosopher and the physician Put Symjao has elaborated an internal system of psychophysical regulation "janshenshu" which one key principle was – «solid and mental are uniform». In system breathing exercises, methods of mollification of consciousness, a concentration of attention on solid feels, and also methods of rendition of outer objects were used. Exercises were fulfilled both in a statics, and in dynamics.
Consciousness operation in theories of internal styles should not be transmuted into any concentration on driving performances, in thought hard work. Any act of consciousness should represent free flow of thought and actualisation of creative will. In each driving limiting operation of consciousness, but this perpetually awake consciousness in a state nedejanija is indispensable.
It is considered that the concept previous a philosophical pair in-jan, the concept of the absolute termed "tajtszi" (a great limit), pictorially figured around, consisting of two halves is. Tajtszi the pattern that is one of fundamental standings daosizma and to which one should be aimed engaging in internal styles ushu means harmony and unity macro and micro. Characteristicly that founders daosizma considered change of aircraft attitude of a human skew field identically changes of aircraft attitude of a cosmos, that is passage tajtszi in a pair in-jan, then in five devices and further in eight trigrams.
Internal styles in the Chinese tradition are considered as not so much art of fisticuffs or gymnastics, how much a special type of filosofsko-psychological education.
Internal pace of the person differs non-uniformity and external shape plays back it. It is displayed in sharp changes of pace in style of Chen tajtszitsjuan, in explosive motions sinitsjuan, in interior alternating of a devastation and brimming in baguachzhan.
In practice the understanding of a characteristic orb as spiritual phenomenon transfers in embodiment of the specific receptions built on the arc motions or the specification statement of a circumference. The output for limits of the yielded path threatens with loss of a capability of adequate protection. Burst of an interior effort happens on orb boundary – the strongest shock in this case is struck. The orb boundary is always a boundary of touch with the opponent which one cannot be dropped inside. Therefore from its attack it is necessary to leave a sharp turn of all skew field as in sinitsjuan.
The concept of an effort of internal styles practically is not connected to muscular force, this special chuvstvovanie the opponent as itself, it is a view on the rival as though from inside it. «The effort slyshanija» is a capability to perceive on the slightest oscillations of a skew field of the opponent its intentions, to anticipate not only its physical driving, but even flying of its thought. «The understanding effort» allows to follow each gesture and a thought of the opponent, without entering in physical touch. Both types of an effort are attained by signing on a resonance with ecumenical pace.
It is considered that in internal styles duel outcome is determined to its initiation, cracked eggs self-development happens as an unaccountable running of the Dao, there is no necessity to reflect about tactics of cracked eggs or embodiment of receptions – is performed natural soprojavlenie interior human nature.
Original duplicity daosizma has caused its place in the Chinese crop as a messenger between its various levels and, in particular, between the Chinese and Indian traditions, making the significant impact on kitaizatsiju the Buddhism, and later having played the leading part in gaining in strength process of making Chinese religious sinkretizma.
Philosophical flow neokofutsiantsev has occurbed in XII — XIII centuries, having united to morally-ethical postulates konfutsianstva to Taoist metaphysical theories, having introduced in ushu the term "gunfu", the meaning moment of self-realisation and interior self-disclosure in the course of reaching of the higher skill, the moment of an appropriation of completeness of the vital power, attained after fostering by the person of the internal natural properties. Reaching gunfu is is possible as a result of refinement of consciousness from all detrital and recoveries of sight by the person of the true interior appearance. It not acquisition of any new engineering skills, is global reorganisation of all inner patterns of the individual, attaching to the person the new spiritual powers deducing process of creativity on a new twist of evolution. The person who has attained gunfu, abides in a flow of things and appearances, dropping it through itself, following changes in the world and without trying to overcome them, follows the Trajectory (Dao). Gunfu is a reaching of skill in the course of constant psychophysical ageing.
It both the purpose and a trajectory to it, this creation of new physical and spiritual unities in the course of Dao comprehension.
Ushu is a private implication gunfu when certain procedures minister to gradual self-disclosure of the person and an autolytic decomposition of its consciousness in world unity. In learning process passage through boundedness of external shapes is attained: by means of comprehension of several complexes was possible to see behind exterior driving its internal essence. The person is in an autolytic decomposition state when consciousness on what it is not fixed, but mirrors everything that it environs, as a mirror.
Thus, formation neokonfutsianstva has confirmed in practice a principle "tajtszi", that is a harmonic combination of opposites in and jan. After all daosizm and konfutsianstvo, apparently, diametrically opposite. «Konfutsy believes in the law, in tradition, in teaching, he believes in morals, crop, a company, formation. Lao-tszy believes in naturalness, individuality, freedom…». Nevertheless these teachings were not at enmity, and argued and as a result chaffers, controversies happened vzaimoobogashchenie and interpenetration. Apparently, east wise men have perceived that the society unstrands under the laws, and the person – on the and in confronting is no point. Society are ambitions, aggression, desires, it politichen, that is is in a greater degree a machismo (jan), and meditation is apolitical, nonaggressive and neambitsiozna is a feminine (in). Therefore to rendezvous them it is possible, and to admix – is not present.
Thus, morals also interioziruetsja and introvertiruetsja, that is the adherent, being itself the integrated world, can leave from temporal vanity, remaining in a pattern, by means of a maintenance in the internal life. «… In the social plot similar introvertivnaja ethics at all its apparent aversion of society and the world which one on a scale of values ranked nonmeasurably more low, rather than the microcosm of the individual which has become by the main subject of philosophy after (((((((centuries, was nevertheless at all a form of protest, and, to the contrary, the moral sanction of this company…» That in itself is influencing chanskogo the Buddhism.
«Those who see me because of my form, and those who follow me because of my voice, commit the irregular efforts. These people will not see me.
Through the Dharma it is necessary to see Buddhas, Through the Dharma skew field their administration, and still true nature of the Dharma will come cannot be perceptible, and nobody can understand it as object »(Diamond Sutra) _ _1. 3. The Chan-Buddhism and its role in formation ушу_ the Buddhism which has originated in India in VI century BC has started to penetrate into China in I century of a new era. However the turning point in history in the history of the Buddhism in China considers III century when it becomes mass enough and temples and monasteries start to occur, the monkhood is shaped, Buddhist texts are translated into the Chinese tongue. Nevertheless in China the Buddhism has clashed with flock of difficulties, overcoming which one and, appreciably, kitaizirujas, it is more narrow in IV century has formed some the Chinese directions:« Three tracts »(sanlundzun or madhjamika) and« dharmovyh characters »(fasjantszun or vidzhnjanavada) which one were rather small. Other schools of the Chinese Buddhism (tantaj, organised in VI century the friar Chzhi; huajan, bottoms are pledged by Du-shunem in VI century, but the founder friar Fatszan who has perished in VIII century) is considered were more popular and huajan, having explicit philosophical directivity, further has stepped over boundaries of China.
It is necessary to mark that on a Buddhism standing in China special type of printing of duplicity lies. And, some singularity of a standing of the Buddhism consisted in acceptance of idea of symbolical perspective of fashions by it (elaborated in ancient China daosami) and requirements ritualisticheskoj harmonies konfutsianstva that allowed to separate from the Buddhism as institute the true, "hidden" sense of wisdom of the Buddha.
The Chinese author Lu Kuan JU (1994) considers that the Buddhism which has fallen into decay on the native land, after almost 10 centuries after the formation has begun victorious procession from China on all Far East region thanks to what ancient Chinese teaching daosov has prepared for this purpose a fertile field. Osho (1994) who states adheres to the same judgement also that if to discard from true daosizma and the Buddhism the latest philosophical and religious beddings it will appear – heart of these two perfect "parents" and more more perfect "child" (chan-Buddhism) is meditation – "chan" which one together with a name of one of parents has organised a name of the newborn "chan-Buddhism".
About interrelations of the Buddhism with konfutsianstvom tells one of the maiden Buddhist missionaries of Canas Senhuej admitted in imperial rooms (the midpoint of III th century): «Chow-gun and Konfutsy in the speeches uncovered close and shown, teaching of the Buddha touches things secret and far», that is the Buddhism, being identified with "internal" aspect of the Chinese tradition, gained a priority as hidden, but an indispensable requirement of all forms of crop.
It is considered that the chan-Buddhism, being purely practical and most well-known school in the Far East chan (zen) which one founder is Bodhidharma (Damo), arrived to China from India in an initiation of VI century, has assimilated school philosophy huajan. The word "chan" is abbreviation from "channa" (sanskr. "dhjana" – meditation, contemplation) points especially practical, ability attitude of the chan-Buddhism.
In connection with the aforesaid it is necessary to resemble that at learning of ancient directions of the Buddhism differentiate three parts: 1. The experience theory (gnoseologijaju and psychology), 2. Metaphysics – in sense of the theory about is true-real or absolute (ontology) and 3. The salvage theory. Practical moral teaching joins these three parts blanket to all directions, and the subject of teaching of the Buddhism is broken down into four so-called «sacred (noble) trues»:
1) the Travail – the general name of that there is everything that is, being subject to life, thereby is more narrow travail: the travail is a process as that.
2) the travail Parent consists in vanity, in omrachennosti, passions which one are at the bottom to that life does not stop, and is prolonged in a perpetually turnover.
3) travail Termination consists in quiescent condition reaching, in suspension of a turnover of life.
4) the Trajectory to travail termination consists in gradual magnification elemntov, directed on salvage, in killing of the parents of life and in reaching of a finite ideal the Trajectory of termination of travails is termed "median" or "octal" (by an amount of steps) a trajectory and is conditionally divided into three parts, first of which, in essence, contains universal, morally-ethical standard and regulations and, in turn, consists of three steps: 1. The correct activities or the correct behaviour – neprichinenie alive, waiving of larceny, violence, irregular sexual behaviour, respect for and ability to forgive an error, making of them the correct outputs.
2. The correct speech – to tell only truth, without being engaged in gossips, not to speak for eyes, not to talk smut.
3. The correct conduct of life – to acquire maintenance of life by fair means.
Following three steps of this trajectory concern primarily meditation practice:
4. The correct effort – a root of any reachings, however an effort demands balance. Intensity and passionate desire of success are major hindrances for last.
5. The correct sensibleness – without tearings of attention to watch passing of material and thought processes, realising the pleasant moments without the greed, offensive without anger, neutral – without apathy.
6. The correct concentration – represents a unipath of consciousness, its capability to remain on object of observation, not for a moment without being sidetracked.
Third of a noble octal trajectory – wisdom:
7. The correct understanding – understanding of that all in the nature, including our skew field and consciousness, is continuously modified by the law cause-effect relations.
8. The correct thinking – thinking free from rage, greed and the cruelty, brimed with compassion and love.
Thus, teaching of the Buddha represents a practical trajectory of self-improvement of the person. Exterior simplicity of this trajectory is apparent and each step of a median trajectory demands deep understanding. Thereupon it is possible to mark that from the maiden six steps leading to wisdom, at least, three imply huge relevance of ageing of consciousness – meditations. The seventh step is intimately bound to fundamental teaching of the Buddhism about Dharmas. The term "Dharma" is many-valued and depending on a context it can be treated as "quality", "law", "pervoelement", «substantsionalnaja a fragment», «the carrier of the sign».
One of fundamental standings of the chan-Buddhism is that any Buddha as persons do not exist. The Buddha is a special state of consciousness. And, though chan-buddiijskaja the monastic tradition implied the strict discipline and the rigid architecture, all adherents chan remembered the well-known paradoxical expression of Lintszi Isjuanja (IX century): «Has met the Buddha – slay the Buddha. Has met the patriarch – slay the patriarch».
Other singularity of the chan-Buddhism is that its adherents, as well as daosy, tested deep distrust to the verbal transmission method of the essence of teaching which one can be assimilated the pupil by means of joint with the teacher of meditative practice. Also, according to chan-Buddhists, the state of the instant clarification can boost special unexpected action on the pupil by means of a hail, shock or meditation on the paradoxical expression "gunan" (japonsk. "Koan"). To gunan conversations «ven yes» (japonsk are close. "mondo") and self-asking – "huatou".
And, at last, along with meditation in a standing sitting chanskie trainers hailed also dynamic meditation during obligatory manual labour or walks, and also during occupations by martial arts. It is obvious that apogee of such meditation the real duel which one, creating extremely dangerous situation could minister, boosted consciousness conversion.
The analogous approach was applied by the famous expert of meditation of Shri Bhagvan Radzhnish (Osho) in days of the youth when it committed the most dangerous leaps from a high railway bridge in the stormy river. In a time of flight to a surface of the river he tested with what incomparable states of blowing-down of mind that further has induced it on looking up of methods of the meditation which have been not connected to such dangerous activities. However Osho always iterated that the true researcher should experiment permanently when the boldness and bravery become principal qualities. «Bravery, – according to Bhagvanu, is the greatest quality in life wherefore without bravery there is no freedom, and without freedom there is no True…».
The chan-Buddhism was a variety of the Buddhism of a Mahajana, that is «a wide trajectory of salvage», escaping envisioning a capability of "a sansara sprocket» (line-ups of births – death) not only for friars, but also for laymen that made possible a close connection between spiritual practice and temporal life activity and contributed in Buddhism propagation in breadth.
It is necessary to note that kitaizatsija the Buddhism has imported to practice of the chan-Buddhist monasteries representing a landlocked community both patterning makrokosm and the microcosm, the interpolated sacramental (bridging conventional konfutsiansky sacramental (a leah) with chanskimi principles), the hypertrophied etiquette, strict observance of the monastic charter, a rigid regulation of movements, gestures and words. That contributed in making of an aerosphere of special severity, education of self-testing and the interior concentration, helping arousing of consciousness of the adherent, waiving of logical thinking thanks to what he could discover in itself(himself) «original essence of the Buddha».
Entering of martial arts in chanskuju to practice connect to a name of Bodhidharmy. He has discovered that the durable continuances of abiding in a static position and an inactive conduct of life not only shatter health shaolinskih friars, impeding their advance by the way of moral-psychological enhancement, but also reduce meditating in the state of catalepsy hindering their spontaneous clarification and intuitive inspiration. Therefore the active, dynamic forms of mental preparation were demanded. Implementation of principles chan in martial arts allowed to tolerate them on orbs of practical life activity of the person. Besides, the unity of mind and body was attained in practice when consciousness operation in an extremal situation quitted on qualitatively diverse level contributing in mobilisation of all concealed resources of a human body that accelerated process of reaching of a clarification. The depthbalanced action of conventional Buddhist methods of psychotraining and is active-dynamic forms of psychophysical ageing not only nejtralizovyvalo a negative effect of static, passive methods of meditation, but also contributed in complex conversion of the person, its harmonic evolution at which one physiological aspects became direct prolongation mental and, in turn, promoted improving of a psychophysical state of the person.
By rules vinai (the monastic charter) which one prohibited to friars to harm alive beings, in China chanskie friars not only were engaged in martial arts, but also enlisted duels with gangsters that quite often led to death of the last. It was justified by that salvage of the life gave to the friar chance of a clarification appropriation already in the yielded degeneration, and loss superimposed to it a trajectory to the further spiritual enhancement salvage should become which one effect.
For the sake of justice it is necessary to mark that monastic charters permitted to friars to apply the art only in a special emergency when there was no different way to prevent characteristic loss. It was categorically prohibited to cripple feeble or to apply ushu to entertainment.
It is necessary to mark that a rule "ahimsa" ("neubienie") as the basic principle of the ratio of Buddhists to violence generally, was included in the visible contradiction that was not forbidden to minister to Buddhists in army though it was prohibited to trade the weapon. Thereupon it is necessary to mark that in India – native land of the Buddhism the caste "kshatriev" ("warriors") always was highly esteemed, as is original with a view of establishment of the order people selected from the environment of the most worthy – the tsar and its helpers – warriors defence and putting in order was which one task. And Buddha Shakjamuni, as it is known, was the son of the tsar and concerned to military estate. It is more than that, it is considered that all great illuminated: the Buddha, Mahavira, Bodhidharma have quitted from kshatriev while braminy (sacrificers) – the highest caste, shudry (untouchable) – the lowest caste, no less than vajshja (dealers, businessmen) have not yielded a pattern of wise men of such gauge. From pages of the book of Carlos Castaneda Don Juan speaks about necessity to be similar to the warrior that to deeply conformably practice of meditation. For the warrior the main thing – to be stainless in own eyes, it is not skewed, does not complain, does not regret, accepting all in life as a personal challenge, continuously being under a look of the exacting attention. The warrior, kshatry risks the life and in it its climax difference.
As to begin to see clearly heart of the Buddha in themselves it was possible only in the act of the activity spontaneous and not limited to prescriptions any prohibitions acquired absurd character and there was their overcoming in implementation process of freedom of spirit and creative understanding of the world. Ushu became one of the major methods of self-education in the chan-Buddhism as envisioned qualitative reorganisation of consciousness of the person. It began to be comprehended in the capacity of a self-valuable trajectory of an appropriation of spiritual harmony.
Meditative practice in the chan-Buddhism is grounded on a spontaneous flow of consciousness to which one the will of the person is not imposed. Thoughts should leak freely and easy up to their complete extinction. Thus the consciousness is compared with ideal a smooth surface of loch, becoming a mirror reflective subjects without the slightest contortions. In the course of meditation there is an occurring of the person to an original choir itself. Ushu became an integral part of a complex of moral and spiritual preparation of friars. Concerning its originating and essence in the literature there are some versions.
The Chinese chan-Buddhist tradition states that the founder of school chan-Buddhist missionary Bodhidharma became the founder and has transmitted the maiden Chinese pupil Huejke teaching about a subitaneous clarification. The fact of appearance of a monastery speaks that the patriarch had in due course a flock of pupils and the followers needing making of a certain centre of "lamp transmission» (the secret essence of teaching of the Buddha) from «hearts to heart».
Other version states that up the time of coming of Bodhidharmy in China, already existed both a monastery, and a community of Buddhist friars, which one 28th patriarch of the Buddhism and 1st – the chan-Buddhism has headed owing to the conclusive religious authority. To ward of the patriarch friars practiced the characteristic methods for the orthodox Buddhism of assidenous meditation. Making of the depthbalanced complex of psychophysical preparation, neutralising the negative action of static and passive forms of psychotraining on physical and a morale of friars became a merit of Bodhidharmy.
Spiritual teaching of Bodhidharmy expressed the formula «two infiltrations and four activities». Two infiltrations were perceived as two methods of reaching of a clarification – by interior spiritual evolution and contemplation («spiritual infiltration») and by fulfilment of the positive practical activities («infiltration by means of activity»). Actually it meant nonseparable connection exterior and interior, physical and mental.
Procedures of spiritual infiltration allowed to find the true state of consciousness and to quit on qualitatively diverse level miroperezhivanija, having returned to the characteristic nature. «If tsi has not found a perfection state also contemplation is not meaningful. When tsi it was abirritated, the skew field is left by all illnesses. Contemplation (chan) and the Trajectory (Dao) simultaneously attain equilibrium.
If the person practicing it, does not concentrate spirit as its Trajectory (Dao) can attain perfection? ». Thus, shaolinskie friars achieved reaching of a state of a clarification by feeding tsi and heart reconciliations.
Under four activities tendered by Bodhidharmoj, were implied requital for harm, lack of temporal aimings, ministering to the Dharma (teaching of the Buddha) and a running to fate. Life was introduced as Dao implementation in the act of a meditative enlightenment in implementation process of characteristic natural properties.
Requital principle for harm predoopredeljal interflow of martial arts to chan-Buddhism postulates: «Saving sutry and the learning Buddhism should strenghten also the skew field and more all pays attention to martial arts.
Martial arts allow to advocate themselves, to defend a monastery, to save up a Buddhist Dharma, to defend virtue and to advocate the state », – the trainer of XV century told shaolinsky Tszjueljun. Martial arts were transmuted into organic prolongation of Buddhist doctrine for this reason they did not conflict to Buddhist ideas neprichinenija alive and enhancements of virtuous acts. Teaching ushu on villages was perceived by friars as the form of the sermon of Buddhist ideas. Principles ushu, thanks to the illuminated spirit teaching, were set up and perceived in the capacity of trajectories of interior self-realisation, there was a waiving of submissions about martial arts as about cracked eggs methods. Act (vej) – the active human interference in naturalness of the interior nature of the entity – were contrasted not with act (uvej) – to a running to an is natural-spontaneous course of world development when things are allowed to be displayed in them"takovosti".
In the chan-Buddhism there is a motive of a creative seclusion at implementation of spiritual looking up. In ushu this motive of individualism has led to appearance of foremans of the hermits trained not at people, and at inhabitants of heaven: going by true one is bound to remain internally. The instant and unexpected clarification – a light exposure in consciousness began to be contrasted with practice of gradual and long self-improvement.
The Chansky tradition has transmuted any type of activity into art of enhancement of spirit. Martial arts became a complex constituent chanskih arts where also entered a calligraphy, painting, stihoslozhenie and park art. Ushu it is considered any more only as a method of a conduct of combat or a national entertainment. This unity spiritual and practical in the course of fostering, first of all, a spiritual initiation.
N. V.Abaev does not discover the answer why shaolinskaja the school ushu has strongly pronounced offensive character and to shocks in it is attached much more meaning, than to protective actions. A.A.Maslov explains it primordial Chinese practicalness: the strict Indian principle ahimsy (neprichinenija alive) has acquired the higher virtuous rationality: if attack, it is necessary to be advocated actively, differently the fulfilment of good deeds can conclude prematurely. The principle ahimsy combined with konfutsianskim a humanity principle – to robust, reasonable, corresponding vital realities.
Distinctiveness shaolintsjuan is its more dynamical and rigid character in comparison with martial arts of a Taoist direction: in shaolinskom ushu sharp rectilinear shocks, powerful shocks in a leap are used. But, at the same time, clearly the principle of a harmonic combination firm and soft, force and wilt, active and passive, defences and offensives is tracked. It was possible at the expense of alternating of a highest concentration of force at shock and relaxings at a hiatus, prompt passages from the active offensive activities to defensive receptions, matings of softness of movements with ruggedness at the moment of application of the force. Unlike the orthodox Buddhism, the chan-Buddhism admitted involvement of friars in various types of activity as was considered that the person who has taken a trajectory of moral and mental enhancement, cannot find the complete and ultimate clarification, without helping other people. Hence, its obligation – to participate in temporal affairs, converting this activity for the blessing of characteristic salvage. In process of chan-Buddhism development the output has been drawn on sinfulness of barren contemplation and that any forms of social activity, including occupations by martial arts, are higher level of practice of moral-psychological enhancement. A control with the difficulties hindering reaching of object in views was the major requirement of a surviving of the person. For chan-Buddhists the control for reaching of a state of a clarification consisted in remission of the emotionally-psychological orb and is simultaneous in contributing to a clarification of other people. This control guessed usage of the diversified methods of action on consciousness and subconsciousness of an individual, including violent acts (shocks, jerks, hails) if they contributed in a clarification ultimate goal were admitted also. In it it was implemented mahajansky a principle of the vigorous activity for the purpose of salvage of all alive beings and the violence directed to the blessing, any more was not considered as violence.
Being a means of education of combativity, martial arts in the chan-Buddhism originally acquired is active-offensive character though could be applied with a view of a selfdefence. Reacting against aggressive environmental factors, they simultaneously were a means practical implementation chanskogo a clarification ideal. Therefore, even if Bodhidharma did not accept any involvement in development of receptions shaolinskogo ushu, the methods of meditation implemented by it and idealised standings of the Buddhism in itself yield strong reasons for its honouring as key figure in the course of formation chanskih traditions in China.