Vipassana-meditation in static standings

One of skew field original positions at realisation of a static computer is the standing sitting on a low bench-base or a drawsheet depth 10 — 15 Legs see are crossed under a foot bath. Thus, the foot bath and knees will organise a leg in the form of an isosceles triangle (lotus or semi-lotus positions are Preferential). Paintbrushes of arms on hips, the left palm on a rear side of the right paintbrush. The back and a neck are rectified, the head is slightly inclined forward. The end of tongue touches the root at the upper incisors, an eye poluzakryty. Skew field muscles are relaxed.

Breath natural. Details of a standing of a skew field are picked up empirically and duration of a presence in a position is gradually enlarged from 10 till 60 minutes.

Such standing of a skew field contributes in development of static passive slenderness in coxofemoral, patellar and ankle joints, and also low-endurance fatigue of the muscles organising a corset for a spinal column. It would be desirable to emphasise great value of the correct standing of a vertebrae once again. In the east there was an inclining that all illnesses of the person happen because of an irregular standing of a back. Without parting solid or spiritual, the Chinese teachers stated that by force of thought it is possible to rectify a back and, vice-versa, the direct back rectifies thought. Proceeding from the concept of east medicine, the zadne-median line of longitude differently is termed as the control port. It also underlines special relevance of a standing of a vertebrae on which one transits a zadne-median line of longitude.

Aim a computer: to Contribute in aftertreatment of psychics of the person (sportsman).

Computer tasks: 1. To normalise and develop self-regulating function of consciousness (reflexion) by decontamination (resetting to zero) of functions of the self-ratio and a self-rating.

2. To develop functions of a strong-willed effort and the arbitrary attention of the active purposefulness of consciousness (regulation) 3. To contribute in refinement of consciousness by gradual decontamination of feels, perceptions, memory, thinking, emotions and senses.

Methods and methodical receptions of a computer: 1. Introspection.

2. A method of mental marks.

Objects of introspection: Feels in a skew field, fashions, the secondary fashions, submissions, thoughts, concepts, emotions (experience), sense (experience).

Proportioning: 10 — 60 minutes, in certain cases 180 minutes and are more.

Architecture: 1. Individual occupations.

2. Group occupations.

3. Self-supporting occupations.

Operating instructions on a computer: Introspection of phenomena of psychics should be performed absolutely without prejudice, without involving thinking in the event assaying.

The method of mental marks consists that at the meditation initial stage mental bracing of dominant objects of observation is possible. Thus also it is impossible to involve thinking, memory in the assaying of the marked moments.

Concentrated sensibleness implies majorant retention on which one the attention of the interior look-out is concentrated. As a rule in a computer such majorant is breath process. However appearance of any mental phenomena which one can become temporary leaders of attention is is possible. Concentrated sensibleness implies close observation of that is in the true moment.

The stating attention is displayed in observation of objects as they are, without setting on a select and comparing without experiences and estimation.

It is the uniform sensibleness alien to contortions, preferences and interference in process. «Do not judge!» And "here-and-now" its fundamental sets.

Sensibleness of breath practises with attention deduction on driving of a front abdominal wall in clock period with breath stages (an inspiration, an expiration, a hiatus). Thus it is not necessary to impose to breath other regimen, as it not breathing exercise. It is necessary to cut off imagination, submission and rendition of process of breath. Mental marks "rise-lowering", "inside-outside", "inspiration-exhalation" are thus possible. However attention deduction on the selected object will be hindered by various sidetracking factors in the form of feels, fashions, thoughts, senses, emotions, concepts and so forth Thus, some of the enumerated factors can appear rather strong. In this case mental marks of this or that sidetracking factor then the attention is softly returned to breath to the aid can come. The matter is that the human psychics as shows experiment, possesses such property that through some resettings to the sidetracking factor, it can disappear, but is not eliminated that there will be another with which one the same process is iterated.

Thus there is gradual "blocking off" of hindering factors and one-directivity of attention is attained. But appearance of very strong factor, for example, painful feel or sensation of fear, or something another from what it will not be possible to "be cut off" is not eliminated. In this case it is possible to speak about a temporary or additional majorant on which one there is an attention switching. Thus event perception should be absolutely neutral and passionless.

More obviously to understand with the meditation gear, we will be converted to the circuit fig. 1 «the Level of the hierarchy in an organism and behaviour of the sportsman». We will begin with a conscientious level of the hierarchy where miscellaneous performances of consciousness at a computer play a various role.

Meaning of REGULATION, REFLEXION, CONSCIOUSNESS DEVELOPMENT at a computer: It is known that selfregulation in consciousness of the person plays a defining kontrolno-regulating role. At a computer selfregulation regulates a level of the strong-willed effort directed, in turn, on regulation of submissions, perceptions, imagination, experiences, spotting dynamics of emotions and senses.

The self-ratio and self-rating spot that in consciousness development there was its socialisation which one for the period of a computer should be removed"from consciousness as the clothing is taken out from a skew field. Besides selfregulation checks the arbitrary attention, attaching it indispensable vigilance and concentration and directing on observation of internal mental processes. Thus, if to operate with concepts of the modern psychology, the consciousness (reflexion) at a computer fulfils a role of the interior look-out.

REFLEX at a computer should be as in an ideal mirror. All body of knowledge should be disconnected, contributing in adequate perception of the actuality.

Feels which one are watched during a computer, it is possible to assort according to evaluators through which one the organism gains the information.

It can be sounds, odours, sense of sights, feels in a skew field. As it was told above for a computer the place where sidetracking factors in the form of sounds, odours and so forth are minimised is usually selected. Lighting minimum, eyes poluzakryty, a skew field is nonmotile. And nevertheless any sounds, odours and visions can be present. In this case recording in the form of a mental mark, for example "listening", "odour" is made, "vision" and attention are again returned to a front abdominal wall – "rise", "downing". Thus the nomenclature of mental marks has no basic meaning. The main thing is not to be involved in thought process of the assaying of the nature, character, intensity regiregistriruemogo feels. As a rule at the initial stage the greatest quantity of feels contacts muscles, knuckles, a skin, an internal. They can be displayed as a burning sensation, squeezing, cramps, chatterings, the pain of various intensity and tones, an itch and so forth In this case also are made mental marks:« The burning sensation "," itch "," chattering "," murashki "," a pain »and so forth is is rather interquartile that any feel becomes so intense that will return attention to a breath cycle is problematic. That is formation of" a temporary majorant »is available. Then the attention is completely concentrated on the yielded object up to its total disappearance then the attention focal point drifts to a breath cycle. One of the modern foremans of a computer of Sunlun-Sajado considers that concentration on the strong painful feels is rather useful, as can attain enough high intensity. Thus it is desirable to save a stiffness and not to modified a position. It is necessary to mark that the concentration of attention on painful feels has demonstrated the operability at computer realisation qualified kikbokserami. As a rule such intense feel quickly enough retreats, and there is a capability again to switch attention to breath.

The consciousness of the sportsman can sometimes start to indulge diskursivnomu or to the associative thinking that is quite natural, but also, at the same time, can introduce certain hazard specially directly ahead of competitions. As they say, the sportsman can "burn out". Sometimes thought process starts to withdraw consciousness in a programme region of forthcoming cracked eggs or the assaying of past ageing, or level of the readiness, being marshalled in "harmonous" concepts and the inferences. Anyway, as soon as you have realised it, it is necessary to make a mark "dumane", "mapping out", "walk". Sometimes presence of such thoughts is realised during the moment of their originating, sometimes – is more narrow in their complete evolution. Occasionally the consciousness bethinks, when the thought has completely sputtered out. Anyway there is no necessity for a control or the conflicting to thought process, it is necessary to mark it, during what moment there would be no understanding.

Sometimes the consciousness appears in handicapping before excess of occurbing mental objects and cannot spot a majorant. The yielded type of handicapping or indeterminate form is in that case marked and there is a resetting to breath which one always is present and consequently is the main majorant.

Originating thoughts, as a rule, intimately are connected to other function of the consciousness, termed the ratio are emotions and sense. Thereupon was very relevant to store one of computer regulations – the ratio to the pleasant vital moments should be without affection, to offensive – without disgust, to neutral – without apathy. In case of an output on the foreground of trouble, disturbance, concern, disappointment, anger, pavor, grief, happiness and so forth, make them too objects of understanding. Otherwise, if there is a realisation, they can become infraconscious screens of a personal level of the hierarchy, when perception and consequently also activity fall in dependence on emotional and sensual contortions.

In manuals on a computer it is mentioned necessity to be vigilant in relation to originating to five hindrances: to desire, doubt, trouble, disgust and drowsiness. The understanding circuit, as with other noises Is offered also, that is the mental mark "desire", "doubt", "trouble" and so forth But if these senses appear strong enough is made, identification with them and then they become masters is is possible. Not to admit such succession of events, it is necessary to switch completely to this object and steadfastly, but otstranenno it to research. Then there is a capability to see that senses and emotions that diverse, as thought and the ratio tracking it, which one prehodjashchi and bessushchnostny.

Sometimes, at closer probe we can see also that behind coulisses of desire, doubt, trouble, anger and so forth work or an unconscious level of the hierarchy on behalf of instinctive reflexes: a tendency to type saving, a tendency to saving of the individual, aiming to activity, aiming to dialogue or an infraconscious level of the hierarchy in the form of erratic psychologic setting. As a rule, comprehensions of all line-up of the difficult mental process happens to quit enough from a hearth of its influencing and to return to understanding of process of breath.

Rather relevant factor meditatsionnoj experts is one of selfregulation and regulation builders – pulse of a strong-willed effort or intension (notion) to any activity. Understanding of intensions is enough high level of meditative practice. At a computer in a standing sitting before a repositioning of a skew field or its any part, at sglatyvanii, opening of eyes there is a notion which one not always is in the form of thoughts or words. Therefore there is no necessity to seek the applicable labels, it is necessary to realise strong-willed pulse to make something.

Stating intension we start to perceive the law of causal ratios between psychics and a skew field at more thin level that can contribute more effective them (psychics and skew fields) in control in any reality situations.

In conclusion of the specification statement of a method of a computer it is possible to give the operating instruction of one of foremans of meditation of Joseph Goldstejna «Drowning mind» (1994): «When concentration attains major intensity, there is a probability of that mind will be included in a pleasant pensive state… Do not yield to it.

Vigilant save a sober, vigorous state, do not admit that the sensibleness state lost focal point… Achieve continuum of clear attention ».

The effect of a computer is displayed that, thanks to refinement and normalisation of such processes of consciousness as reflex and the ratio, attained thanks to a fluidized strong-willed effort and stating attention, happens refinement of subconsciousness and normalisation of an unconscious level of the hierarchy that is adequate vosstanovlenijupsihicheskih organism functions.

The work experience with sportsmen of high proficiency demonstrates that the computer contributes in character forming (specially boldness, bravery), directivities of the person. The computer contributes in implication as the blanket capabilities connected to spiritual implications of the person (painting, poetry, music), and special capabilities or qualities which one most difficultly yield to development by customary methods – rapidities, co-ordination of movements, a relaxation rate and so forth

Computer singularity is that meditation in a static standing is only the first step in the course of self-improvement of psychophysical crop of the person. Further, in process of development of attentiveness, observation, concentration and sensibleness, there is a gradual switching-on of a method of a computer in various types of propulsion activity, since the "promenade" computer and further, ground a principle «from simple to difficult through even more difficult», accomplishment of special complexes of psychophysical exercises under the program which one implementation is performed during all human life (tab.) the Method. Receptions Age Meditation in statich. It is supposed.

The formal complexes the Duel with ogranich. Contact.

Duel with complete contact.

The childhood (4 – 12 years) + + + Youth (13-18) + + + Ripeness (19-35) + + + + the Environments. vozr. (36-60) + + + Prekl. vozr. (61-80) + + + the Old age (from 81) + + +

Explanations to the table:

1. In children’s age of a computer it is performed in the core in static standings and at instruction to complexes of various types SBE from which one it is possible to consider as the most preferential kata in karate-to or taolu in chantsjuan ushu, the recommended type of activity it is possible to spot instruction to such types of a control as a judo and aikido.

2. In youthful age along with methodical receptions of a computer in static positions and complexes of psychophysical battle exercises it is possible to recommend as methodical reception of activity in extreme conditions sparringi with strictly restricted contact by rules seven-contact (WUKO) or lajt-contact (kickboxing), and also such types of a control as aikido and a judo.

3. In mature age to the methodical receptions of a computer enumerated above it is possible to recommend duels in the complete contact or various types of a control. As duels in the complete contact demand the significant time consumption on preparation and are integrated to some hazard for health such types of single combats demand the professional approach.

4. In advanced and senile age the computer percent in static standings largely increases and at accomplishment of complexes tajtszitsjuan.

In the capacity of sparringov it is recommended tajtszitujshou («jolting arms»). In China this type of single combats is extremely popular among older persons. At Universal festival ushu 1992 in Shanghai with demonstration performances on complexes tajtszitsjuan and tujshou the bunch of sportsmen of men and women at the age from 70 till 94 years appeared.

The principle «from simple difficult through more difficult» consists that reaching of a meditative state in runtime of a complex or especially in a time sparringa is much more difficult, than in an everyday life. Therefore passage from a computer during propulsion activities SBE to the propulsion activities integrated to labour activity or in a household activities, does not constitute special transactions. Gradually activity in a state of the complete understanding becomes a habit and leads to substantial increase of its (activity) of performance. The high successes attained by Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, etc. it is literally in all orbs of life, in many respects speak that meditation in these countries is national tradition. At engaging in a computer much more chances to overcoming of various stressful extremal situations, than not at the engaging.

Vipassany-meditation methodology

Determination: Meditation is a process and a self-action method on a conscientious, infraconscious and unconscious level of the hierarchy an organism for the purpose of enhancement of properties of the person, including its directivity, capabilities, character and temperament. A vipassany-meditation distinctive feature is concentrated sensibleness thanks to what infiltration into essence (insajt) is attained.

Vipassana-meditation (further – the computer), being one of meditation types, can be with good reason referred to methods of psychotherapy, a psychohygiene, psychopedagogics. Including the computer can solve psychoaftertreatment problems. Anyway the procedure of a computer demands instruction, that is retention of the teacher or the teacher and the pupil. In this connection it is necessary to spot the ratio to vipassane-meditation, and also demands to the teacher and the pupil.

The ratio to a computer, first of all, implies the ratio to it as to a method which is out of religiji wearing especially individual – intimate character. Therefore, if the method appears ineffective, from it are failed and search for other method. But, if you have experienced that the yielded method – for you, to it it is necessary to concern as to a trajectory having an initiation, but not having the extremity. Not incidentally all martial arts of the East having a meditative bottom, have gained an attachment "to" – "trajectory" which one can have the mediate points (purposes), but has no finite blowing-down. In it a climax singularity of the "play" termed as meditation osoznovanija or an enlightenment. Demands to the coach-teacher (teacher): The teacher of a computer should be not only the theorist, but is obligatory also a meditation expert as during instruction along with knowledge transfer about a method and its justification a joint practical training which one can occur and further, specially, in precompetitive and competitive microcycles are indispensable. Anyway until the sportsman of high proficiency needs the personal coach, the important factor of their joint successful performance joint meditative occupations can minister. However the teacher should remember that meditation is such orb in which one forcing cannot occur.

Demands to the sportsman (pupil): It is necessary to remember that the doubt and trust it different sides of the same coin, but if you have overcome the doubt in relation to the coach (teacher), to a procedure and have begun cooperation to doubt there should not be a place. If there is a doubt there can not be a commonwealth, specially in sport of the higher reachings when the coach and the sportsman should constitute a unit. Nevertheless, it is not necessary to forget that cooperation should be creative. It means that the coach and the pupil should go the trajectory, imitating nobody, as the original is always better, than a repetition.

The specification statement of a procedure of a computer. The procedure is elaborated for two sutr by Gautamy of the Buddha – «Sutry of the complete understanding of breath» and «Sutry of four bottoms of sensibleness», and also on the basis of personal practical experience of operation with sportsmen of various specialisations and proficiencies. The procedure has the multiple-purpose character and can be applied by people of miscellaneous age and a floor.

We consider that the aiming to meditative activity can have not realised character caused by jerk of freedom and jerk of the purpose, to be exact their balance sheet. Conscientious usage of any methods of meditation speaks about mental crop of the person and should be encouraged and unstrand the qualified teacher. The computer contributes in that the person becomes wiser and leads to understanding of that its freedom is inside, instead of outside, and its appropriation depends in many respects on the correct teleologism.

Aiming implementation to freedom can be helped by understanding of one of principles SBE «unities and harmonies of opposites» regarding conscientious adjustment public and individual (consciousness development). Namely: the coach should perceive that social activity of the sportsman should be depthbalanced by a capability to a seclusion, that is the sportsman should have the housing, and on collections to be allocated in the separate number («my dwelling – my strength»), differently reaching of good results by it will be rather problematic. The capability to a seclusion will contribute appreciably in performance of a computer.

Before to initiate with a computer practical training, the teacher should acquaint the pupil with idealised standings. The main method – a word method. Methodical receptions: lecture, lecture, the story, inclining, suggestion.

It is necessary to report briefly the case record, the philosophical, idealised and psychophysiological aspects stated above.

Very relevant factor of successful implementation of a computer is observance practicing morally-ethical standards and the regulations accepted in a company and having universal character. Allowing for that at the person mental implications submit to such level of the hierarchy as consciousness, the person and activity, at this grade level the teacher can already attack as on conscientious, and an infraconscious and unconscious level of the hierarchy. Thus, morally-ethical standard can be perceived through the conscientious level of the hierarchy defined as correlation public and individual (socialisation), and also at infraconscious level in a drowsy or hypnotic state, being implemented then as a type of psychologic setting. At unconscious level morally-ethical standard can be conditioned by an is unconditional-reflex bottom of sociability of the person (imitative and group jerks). The pupil should assimilate that any unseemly act on the basis of the law of cause-effect relations creates the internal conflicting implemented at personal and integrative levels in its psychics and able to lead to undesirable effect.

The computer procedure is applicable in any reality situations, including extremal, but application of a computer with a view of mental aftertreatment and on an initial stage of instruction demands the comfortable conditions, allowing to minimise sidetracking factors. Differentiate a computer in static standings and a dynamic computer.


English «meditation» it is literally translated as "speculation" that not to the full there matches to meanings Sanskrit "dhjana", palijskogo "djana", Chinese "chan", Japanese "the zen", marking out the same appearance. In our opinion, in Russian there is more an exact value of this term – "contemplation", that is – «with zertsalom» or – «with a mirror».

However, to spot in a word such phenomenon rather inconveniently, and can and it is impossible. Only in the receiving tank «Altered states of consciousness» (1963), published in the USA and a row of other countries, the bibliography containing about thousand of namings is given. The founder of autogenous ageing I.Schultz considered that the autogenous meditation elaborated by it is it (autogenous ageing) a top gear. Accomplishment of the last seventh exercise of autogenous meditation can lead to katarsisu-self-cleaning and autogenous decontamination.

There is a great number meditatsionnyh the technician: engineering a zen, engineering of a tantra, the technician of yoga, sufijskie technicians, technicians of Christianity, Islam, a Chassidic Judaism. «Hundred twelve methods of entrance are inside accessible already throughout ten thousand years. To them not to add any method» – the most authoritative foreman of meditation of the twentieth century of Bhagvan Shri Radzhnish – Osho speaks. He says what to spot a meditation method it is possible only by practical consideration on subjective feels. It is more than to perceive any of methods, it is necessary to blossom spiritually, and offensive of spiritual ripeness, unlike sexual, does not yield to forecasting. It can set in in 17 years, can – in 30 or 70, and can and not set in never.

We do not have bases to doubt words of Osho but in this connection there is a problem on a ratio of autogenous ageing, an autohypnosis, autogenous meditation, ideomotornoj agings, genesial ageing and other types of self-action on psychics with east types of meditation? On closer examination it appears that all modern methods of self-action inherently are appropriate amount treated alternatives of east meditation. To be convinced of it, it is possible to familiarise with the publication of Lu Kuan JU (1994) in which one various methods jogicheskoj, Buddhist, Taoist and other types of meditation explicitly enough are introduced.

It is necessary to mark however that methods of domestic psychoregulation are the adapted alternatives only one direction of east meditation – concentration or blowing-down meditations (samadhi) or so-called active psychoregulation. Thus the direction vipassanameditatsija (computer), being a heartwood of Buddhist psychotechnics has appeared unclaimed ("vipassana" – dosl. Recalculation «that I see»). It is obvious that a basic reason is ideologizatsija our company. So, Schultz using in the autogenous meditation one of methods of "passive concentration» has been subjected to the critic in A. G.Panova’s publication from co-workers.

(1980): «Schultz’s Psychoanalytical concept with its understanding« trilaminar »structures of the person makes a second stage of autogenous ageing on Schultz-Luthe methodologically unacceptable for materialistic psychotherapy».

L. P.Grimak (1989) writes: «It does not mean, certainly, that, solving such problems, it is possible to slacken our daily ideological and political vigilance. As it was already marked, today yoga, a zen-Buddhism and other east it is religious-philosophical doctrine quite often represent itself as devices of a bourgeois counterculture – and as one of conceptually-psychological radiants of a religious modernism, and as the factor of cultural expansion of the Buddhism». However further L. P.Grimak (1989) all the same yields meditations a right to existence, recognising on the basis of objective research techniques its practical significance. It is thus stated that the concentration of attention leads to a mental immobilisation, «contributes in recovery of psychological functions of the person, abandoning after itself feel of freshness, interior up-dating and pleasure of life».

As a whole the domestic authors affecting a subject of meditation and, as a rule, not being experts, converge in one – meditation has the right to life under condition of its refinement from scurf of mysticism, religiosity and the other winnowings contradicting materialistic understanding of life. In this connection was usefully to note that million people during millenaries practices those or diverse methods of meditation, without paying attention to judgement of men of science.

Besides, on closer examination it appears that, for example, teaching of Gautamy from a stem of Shakja (Buddha) and to strip that there is nothing for that simple parent that no mysticism and religion in this teaching is present. There is only an assertion that in human life travails which one can be avoided occur, and the trajectory of their overcoming consisting of eight steps or a "median" trajectory in which one the maiden three steps contain universal morally-ethical standard and regulations is reduced; following three steps concern practice of meditation and the last two steps speak about the correct understanding and the correct thinking and lead to wisdom. Thus, teaching of the Buddha represents a practical trajectory of self-improvement of the person. However exterior simplicity of this teaching is apparent and each step of a median trajectory demands deep understanding. Further this teaching has accreted thousand volumes of the philosophical and religious literature, the Buddha according to some directions of the Buddhism has been idolised.

It is necessary to mark that some directions of the Buddhism were not engaged in philosophising and saw principal worth of teaching in its rules of thumb of meditation, as is marked out in a title of one of such directions – «chan (zen) – the Buddhism» or the meditative Buddhism. It is considered that other direction relating to a southern branch of the Buddhism – "theravada" or «teaching of elders«, has saved and has informed the teaching essence up to now without changes.

We not incidentally approach to Buddhist meditation all more close and more close. The matter is that practice of autogenous ageing has appeared not high proficiency reasonable to the sportsman in the capacity of means of mental aftertreatment in a continuance when the mental strain bounds with intensity. At this time in a state of significant psychophysical fatigue repetition of verbal formulas or led to inverse effect, or it appeared impossible. More reasonable there was a Russian version of mental training of professor L.E.Unestalja (1988, 1993), elaborated in 1990 — 1991 (Bundzen P. V, 1994). But in a state of mental intensity the sportsman, as a rule, fell asleep and from this procedure also it was necessary to be failed. Application Buddhist vipassany meditations of tradition of Theravady has appeared the most effective.

It is natural that the select of a method for us has appeared not casual, but effect of twenty years’ occupations karate, and then ushu. Owing to that the information on the problems interesting us connected to methods of psychotechnics, was rather poor, process of looking up of a suitable method was expanded almost for fifteen years. Methods a zen, a Taoist method with reference to exercises tajtszitsjuan, various methods a chi kung have been in this time tested at direct occupations with the Chinese teachers ushu Ljan Shaotsanem and Chen Zhutsinom, autogenous ageing on Schultz’s method.

Our ratio to the autogenous ageing, voiced above, it is possible to add that the yielded procedures are quite reasonable to the persons who have been not connected to extremal types of activity against significant psychophysical fatigue.

In transactions of Suzuki D. T., being the large specialist in the field of the zen-Buddhism and martial arts of the East we have met, as it has appeared, with the truncated alternatives of meditation consisting, in the core, in a concentration of attention on a breath scraper. However in-process other specialist in the zen-Buddhism, being a meditation expert, – — Thit Njat Hanja devoted «Sutre of the complete understanding of breath», are reduced methods of the meditative practice grounded as on concentration or focusing (blowing-down) of mind, and on understanding (observation) of mental processes that in the core coincides with a method shi-kuan (shitsjuan), relating to a direction of the Chinese Mahajana, teacher Shi And and methods of Theravady palijskogo a canon, the experts of meditation of D.Kornfilda given in transactions and D.

Goldstejna (1993), and also Osho (1993). It is necessary to mark that known American buddolog E.Konze in the operation «Buddhist meditation» (1993), grounded also on Sutre of the complete understanding of breath, recognises that «methods of Buddhist meditation are less fruitful now, than in the past.

Therefore development of other methods of improving of mental health should be hailed. But, nevertheless, would be an error to guess that the modern world possesses all indispensable for reaching of it ».

The assaying of application of the Chinese procedures on a bottom has demonstrated a chi kung that the yielded procedures demand rather severe preliminary preparation as the concentration of attention is performed on substance circulation tsi in an initiation on a small circle (front and rear median ports), but before discovery of these channels can transit some months or even years after you have started to be engaged in the Taoist meditation rather similar to Buddhist meditation of concentration. A distinctive feature of Taoist meditation is that along with a natural (Buddhist) type of breath the correct or versed (Taoist) breath when during an inspiration the front abdominal wall is sinked is used also, and during an expiration – rises.

It is necessary to mark that rather significant distinctive feature of Buddhist meditation of understanding is that the concentration of attention, as a rule, on a natural cycle of breath, plays an auxiliary role. A bottom is observation of mental phenomena in an organism meditating, happening in the true moment. We underline – only observation, but at all a self-suggestion.

«Meditation – the european term enveloping simultaneously three various concepts, always accurately differentiated by Buddhists, that is attentiveness, concentration and wisdom» (Konze E, 1993).

In this connection it is necessary to resemble of an effort in concentrations of attention or focusings which one should be carefully enough depthbalanced as excessive eagerness in-process with psychics can lead to diametrically opposite effects. The approach of Osho which one tenders is rather interesting to look at meditation not as on severe activity: meditation is an experience neaktivnosti, pleasures, fun: «Mind is very severe, and meditation is absolutely frivolous… It like a play… Sincere, but not the severe. It is completely not similar to operation: it is more similar to a play». On its thought meditation has not something in common with any religion, being in essence a temporal phenomenon. Thus meditation methodology same as science methodology, and one of principal methods – observation. Only the science uncloses an objective external world, and meditation – — a subjective inner life. Just as in a science, it is impossible to enter in meditation with conviction.« You should put aside the philosophy. As though it is beautiful it did not look, whatever systematic it looked, as though you neither have settled and nor have decorated it psychologic, you should discharge it and peer deep into. In it all method of meditation, understanding, vigilant vigilance and attention ».

There is other diametrically opposite view on trust, as on a starting point of all types of spiritual life, as on «the trusting consent with the doctrine which one is not affirmed by and by by means of the accessible, clear, descendental evidence». However unlike Christianity, a Judaism, Islam in the Buddhism objects of a faith are not supernatural phenomena, and (according to tradition of Theravady) the Buddha, as the person attained a clarification state, the Dharma, as teaching about a median trajectory, Sangha, as cenosis sacred, implementing teaching and also attained a clarification. Thus «in speculations about three jewelry (attentiveness, concentration, wisdom) the faith submits to attentiveness, and they are introduced sober enough and restrained and do not contain a major emotional heat».

Allowing for that education in our country had atheistic character, the factor of a religious neutrality also had important meaning in guard rope of a procedure of psychotechnics. Thus, the main demands shown by us to methods of mental aftertreatment of sportsmen SBE of high proficiency, it is possible to formulate as follows:

1. Reliability (including lack of religious-mystical insinuations).

2. Reliability (confirmation of practical performance).

3. Availability (retention of manuals and specification statements).

4. A feasibility in SBE.

5. A self-action capability.

6. Scalability.

To these demands to the full there can match meditation of understanding as which one in the modern literature term "vipassana-meditation".

Specificity of application of means and psychopedagogics methods in SBE

The assaying of original positions of psychopedagogics of sport affirms a capability and even necessity of application of its means and methods in SBE, allowing for their particular singularities one of which one is that SBE in our country never had public financing owing to what their evolution was performed exceptional on the terms of the complete self-financing and self-financing. It has caused what even precast national teams by various types SBE had rather and rather retiring states including occasionally only coaches. Retention of the doctor, the masseur and the professional sports psychologist always was considered as inadmissible luxury. Thus, if to speak about a professional kickboxing the line-up, as a rule, is restricted by the coach and one or two sportsmen. Therefore the enumeration of methods of psychopedagogics is narrowed down before those actions which one the coach and the sportsman and rather effective heterotraining not using, as a rule, and hypnosis can master. It is obvious that in the inventory in the core there can be methods of inclining, suggestion, and also self-action methods, including autogenous ageing.

Thus, the coach professional kikboksera should mate functions of the manager, the promoter, the doctor-masseur, the psychologist and even the motor-man in one person. Allowing for a huge psychological load of the coach, and also that unlike the sportsman nobody is engaged in its recovery, application of some means and psychopedagogics methods becomes inconvenient, and sometimes and impossible. So, even provided that the coach owns an application procedure geterotrenninga and hypnosis, in a preparation concluding phase when its mental strain transfers in intensity, hardly this procedure will have effective action on the sportsman. Certainly, if there is a capability it is possible to use services of the psychologist knowing the yielded sport. But, as a rule, it is necessary to search for other methods.

The main hindrance and difficulty in the trenirovochno-competitive plot is lack of training methodologies of professional sportsmen.

If for an amateur kickboxing it is possible to discover some information in publications on boxing for professionals it is a major problem.

It is necessary to mark that extreme complication of a professional kickboxing makes high demands not only to the load part of training and competitive processes, but also to the second not less relevant half of these processes connected to process management of recovery mental and physical conditions of sportsmen, that is with their psychophysical aftertreatment.

In our opinion there are two bunches of the parents which one consequence is the whole apron of various errors, both the coach, and the sportsman. The maiden bunch of the parents has conceptual character, second – methodological.

The conceptual parents lead, as a rule, to strategic errors in preparation of the sportsman which one, in turn can minister the parents of other errors. Such parent is original sharing of a human body on two halves physical and spiritual (mental) or on a skew field and consciousness, that is on material and non-material. From here immemorial chaffer of materialists and idealists – that is primary? – Consciousness or a substance? In our country this control happened to variable success. The second point of view until now dominated – «life spots consciousness». Therefore probably and crop of propulsion activity have named crop physical, that is – solid.

In our opinion both points of view are wrongful, as the person a unit. And the differential approach is justified in a science, but not in education of the person. In sport the foulness of such approach is rather notable. After all the coach deduces the sportsman on competitions not piecemeal. Why psychologic preparation is partitioned off from other types of preparation and their miscellaneous specialists perform? But, as a rule, psychologic preparation is performed by the coach sufficiently intuitively. As preparation of the coach having the higher sports education, in the field of psychopedagogics of sport of the higher reachings is apparently insufficient, and the sports psychologist aware of a specific sport, meets extremely rarely. And psychotraining in sport fulfils servicing functions, as well as a principle of consciousness and activity in physical training. That is the consciousness is routed on development of physical qualities and propulsion skills. And why not to the contrary? After all it is not so obligatory that in a sound body there can be a sound mind which one too should be nurtured.

Thus, the primal problems of sport is preparation for transactions and Native land protection. And the sportsman of the top skills is aimed only at effect, but it is a lot of sportsmen, and unities become winners. From here, probably, and a principle – «victory – at any cost!», even by characteristic health. But even world champions and the Olympic plays on termination of sports career can appear in lost as than, except sport they are not able to be engaged, and the state, in which one glory, they spent the health, the former heroes do not interest any more. After all the slogan of Olympic Games – «is more prompt! Above! More strongly». If to this slogan to add only one word – «Osoznannee!» Or «it is cleverer!», harmony reaching would become more real.

Nevertheless, with confidence it is possible to tell that elite sportsmen most spiritually rich people of our company. But they acquire mental evolution not as a result of purposeful operation, and thanks to activity in extreme conditions and to a natural selection. However, on termination of activity in sport of the higher reachings the highly-developed consciousness of the sportsman cannot drift emphases for existence in usual conditions.

The organizational and financial parents restricting application of practical psychopedagogics in SBE of the higher reachings have been above produced. Besides in the references given above, there are mentions of rather effective methods of ancient psychopedagogics used in various martial arts of the East, checked by a time and having both common features with the modern procedures, and a row of advantages in comparison with them. These advantages consist that along with self-action on consciousness and subconsciousness in a static standing meditating, in an arsenal of east teachings there were the psychotechnics of dynamic meditation gradually feeding to the control and control by psychics in all reality situations, including and such difficult which one originate in the course of single combats. Most a psychophysical method vivid example is such type Chinese ushu, as tajtszitsjuan.

And, between static and dynamic meditation methods it is possible to consider as the transitive method gymnastics of positions of the Indian hatha-yoga and Taoist daoin. The elementary type of dynamic meditation is Buddhist meditation on steps or the "promenade" meditation.

In this connection it is necessary to illustrate that we perceive the term "meditation" which one is used by many authors in transactions of philosophical, historical, psychologic, pedagogical and mystical directivities.


As references in martial arts great value bear was attached psychologic preparation which one in the core based on the filosofsko-religious teachings occurring in countries of the East. Rather effective methods which one understandably had esoteric (shut) character have been elaborated. The modern sport of the higher reachings in many respects repeats experiment of ancient schools of martial arts in respect of classification of those or diverse procedures, and training centres of elite sportsmen are folded for strangers and differ major severity in takeoff of frames. Experiment also implementations of practical psychology in preparation of sportsmen is repeated, after all not for nothing psychologists have occurbed in sport of the higher reachings perhaps earlier, than on production and in army.

From history it is visible that friars of Buddhist, Taoist and other monasteries and military men were majority carriers of knowledge in the field of various types of psychotechnics consulted at them concerning psychology, however friars were engaged in martial arts. There is a problem – what for? After all application of battle receptions by them in practice was rather problematic in view of morally-ethical aspect teachings negating violence in any implications.

According to some explorers the answer consists that adherents daosizma, the Buddhism and so forth considered martial arts as a means and an enhancement method, not only physical, but also mental. That is they considered martial arts as a means and a method of dynamic meditation.

Besides sparring could minister the paste of psychophysical availability.

Thus, interplay of adherents of martial arts and specialists in the field of meditation, and also predilection of east mentality to synthesis have led to making within the limits of martial arts of procedures of psychophysical preparation. The correlation in system "teacher-pupil" where the teacher was not only the teacher, but also the counsellor so, if to speak the modern language, and the practical psychologist had great value conventional for the East.

It is necessary to mark, however, that conventional for our science and practice sharing spiritual and solid or mental (gr. psyche – "soul") and physical starts to be overcome. There is a new synthetic direction «physical training and sport Psychopedagogics» which one developer is the practical psychologist and the teacher the manager. Stand of psychology SPGAFK G.D.Gorbunov, a long time working with national teams of the USSR on floating, cycling, track and field athletics. In its judgement with which one we in the core agree, coaches should know and be able to apply various methods of practical psychology or with sportsmen the qualified psychologists-experts well knowing the yielded sport should work.

In this connection not lishne to resemble of one of philosophy SBE – «unity and harmony physical, intellectual and spiritual has begun» the person. The matter is that in the domestic literature there was a mixing of concepts "intellectual" and "spiritual" though actually the yielded pair can have rather severe contradictions. In the world literature the important place is given to the interior conflicting between "mind" (intelligence), on the one hand, and "soul" or "heart" – with another. Otherwise the yielded pair is known as «conscientious – intuitive». East filosofsko-religious teachings operate with terms «mind – neum» more, maximising action methods on "neum" and state reachings "nedejanija". It is obvious that to the modern company action methods on consciousness and subconsciousness also are known. However in a physical training orb, excepting perhaps sport of the higher reachings, in the core operate with consciousness, and subconsciousness, as a rule, is identified with the term "skill" and action methods on subconsciousness remain a psychology prerogative. In this connection we once again underline major significance of psychopedagogics and we consider that the coach or the teacher working in the field of physical training, should know and be able to put its (psychopedagogics) methods into practice and to realise that the physical training is not only skew field crop. _4. 1. Psychopedagogics in physical культуре_ Many teachers, psychologists, hygienists, physiologists, philosophers, doctors spoke about congenital character of aiming to driving and about great value of a motor performance for life activity of the person.

The needs of nature on the move have huge meaning for all functions of a human body without exclusion, including mental function.

Being guided by probes of the last years, it is considered that need inhibition on the move at the person has an adverse effect both in sense of its organic life, and in sense of passing of mental processes, mental states, up to implication of the person. Rising of level of a motor performance is in directly proportional dependence with some performances of intellectual activity. In the course of physical training there is a correction of a mental state at pupils.

The primal problem of physical training consists in developing congenital organic need on the move in need realised.

The purposeful and realised sufficing of the yielded need for educational, competitive, problem or rekreativno-rehabilitation activity leads to forming of physical training of the person.

It is known that in process of exercise stress growth grows trenirovannost.

Specially it is displayed at playing sports when the need on the move tends to ascending for what the major load According to N.I.Ponomareva (1980) is required still: «One of requirements of implication of activity of the person are propulsion needs. The propulsion needs which have transmuted into a habit, activate all other needs of the person».

Thus, «with a view of not only physical, but also spiritual enhancement of the person it is necessary to consider usage of movements and physical strains tracking them as one of the major tasks of psychogienic pedagogics».

Probes of influencing of exercise stresses on the mental health, considered in the light of three classic categories of a psychologic science are rather interesting: processes – states – the properties which led by many explorers and have demonstrated raznonapravlennost passings of mental processes.

The special place in an orb of propulsion needs is occupied with sports-fighting single combats in which one activity is frequently conjugate to hazard for health, and sometimes and for life of the engaging. If such realised needs for occupations SBE as provision of a security for a person or rising of the functional state of an organism are quite clear, few modern explorers paid attention to not realised need for this type of extremal activity and its character. The mention of mental character of this need is available in a course of lectures of the known specialist on meditative experts of Osho (1996). To speak about scientific probes of influencing on psychophysical indexes of those or diverse builders SBE while, especially, it is not necessary.

At the same time, probe of dynamics of delta times of responses, indexes of attention, memory, thinking and an information retrieval under the influence of various on volume basis and intensity of the exercise stresses, led D.

Gorbunovym in 1966 — 1968 in bunch of swimmers and athletes of various proficiency, has allowed the explorer to formulate practical references to occupations by physical training, some of which with insignificant adding can be recommended for usage in SBE: – in the psychogienic plot morning training occupations (approximately in an hour after a sleep till a lunch) are undesirable. However if nevertheless they are led, after them, before training process, short-term rest (for example a short session of autogenous ageing or meditation) is required at least. Thus it is impossible to forget that morning warm-up with an optimum exercise stress has positive action on a mental orb.

– The day time and vesper training occupations tracked by customary loads, contribute in rising of productivity of mental activity.

But, as mnemicheskie processes actually are not modified, and remaining mental processes undergo the significant improving so far as in an aftereffect of training loads of the least rationalised there will be the activity directed on storage of any material.

It is known that competitive activity in SBE is integrated to the significant physical and mental loads, and in professional sport – with very major loads (title cracked eggs for a rank of the world champion on a kickboxing lasts 12 rounds). It is known also what to approach to such loads it is possible only at the adequate training loads balanced with rest of the sportsman. Allowing geterohronnost (time difference) of recovery of functions of an organism, it is possible to state with confidence that the balance sheet between a load and rest is the main problem of sport of the higher reachings.

Time difference of a restoration process is displayed that after accomplishment of various loads unequal resetting of various indexes (biochemical, physiological, mental) to a datum level is watched. After major training and competitive loads recovery of mental functions of the sportsman appears the most durable.

In this connection it is necessary to mark that one of the major factors of provision of performance of activity of the sportsman is level of a mental strain. Thus in integrated process of mental regulation of activity of the person it is possible to watch three its main things of a builder: intellectual, emotional and strong-willed. Not incidentally in preparation of sportsmen of high proficiency along with its physical, engineering, tactical builders an important place occupy strong-willed and mental preparation. However such sharing is adequately conditional, as neither reason, nor senses cannot be singled out from the whole. Thus, allowing for all relevance of an intellectual builder, for performance of activity of the sportsman singularities of interplay and intercoupling of emotional and strong-willed builders have the basic meaning.

The mental strain is displayed on ageing and competitions.

The strain in training process is connected, primarily, to necessity to fulfil more and more increasing exercise stress. In extreme conditions of competitions to it the mental strain dictated by the purpose of reaching of certain effect is added. Conditionally in ageing it is possible to term a strain procedural, and in competition – successful. Usually they are displayed not only in activity, but also to it, with those odds that the procedural strain originates directly ahead of ageing, and successful can originate long before competition.

It is known that a state of a mental strain, also as well as the physical fatigue, alternated to rest, are a means of reaching of a stage of supercompensating, that is – the purpose of sports ageing. However those superloads which one are used in the modern sport of the higher reachings can lead to overfatigue, mental intensity, that is to reduction of functions of an organism that negative can be considered as the factor.

As it is known to physical overfatigue at reduction of functions physical aftertreatment is engaged in countersteering problems, and at violation of functions – a medical rehabilitation. As to a mental overvoltage in sport it is routinely accepted to attribute these problems to psychologic preparation.

It is natural that the psychopedagogics of sport of the higher reachings appreciably differs from psychopedagogics of physical training and mass sport. Thus it is possible to select psychopedagogics of training process and competition psychopedagogics.

If to consider training process as pedagogical administrative process by states of the sportsman with a feedback closed loop rather relevant builder here is the monitoring system. At control of a mental state it is accepted to term such control as a psychodiagnosis.

Recognising that after major loads psychics of the sportsman it is recovered more longly other functions, on the foreground there is a knowledge the coach of characters of a mental overvoltage. On the basis of the information gained by complex science team in a burn-time with national teams of the USSR on floating also led-track, and clinic of neurotic states considered through a prism, it is possible to select three phases of a mental overvoltage: nervousness, vicious stenichnost, astenichnost and to spot blanket and particular to each phase signs.

It is necessary to mark that as a whole these signs are inherent also to elite sportsmen engaging ushu and a kickboxing.

Except a psychodiagnosis psychologic provision of sports activity includes: psihologo-pedagogical and psychogienic references, psychologic preparation of the coach and the sportsman, and also situational state management and behaviour of the sportsman.

Following performances of dynamics of a precompetitive and competitive mental strain are thus tendered: start emotional neglect (SAT), air alert (BG), a start fever (SL), start apathy (DV).

The SAT means that the sportsman is quiet enough and speaks that forthcoming competitions do not introduce for it special significance, it is quite enough level of its readiness for victory. It is considered that the SAT cannot contribute in implication of spare capacities of an organism which one are uncovered only thanks to extraordinary mental states.

Therefore the SAT state is spotted as unfavorable. However in professional sport and, in particular, in a professional kickboxing along with rather responsible competitions purely mercantile cracked eggs before which one such state can be considered as advisable are planed also.

State BG is optimum as ensures harmony of all functions of an organism when implication of its spares is is possible. It is clear that rendering of the sportsman in such state by the time of start demands huge psychopedagogical skill of the coach. But even at filigree rendering of the sportsman to specific competition the coach should be ready to originating of not anticipated negative factors which one can reduce state BG appreciably. It can be various organizational costs, and also immediate effects of the psychologic plot.

Such costs caused as a rule by low proficiency of specialists, can be displayed on any preparation stage of the sportsman, but specially they are dangerous on final precompetitive preparation stage and in the course of competitions, that is in headrace and competitive microcycles. An example collection of the maiden and second line-ups of Russia before 10th World championship on a kickboxing (Kiev 1995) can minister to that.

Collection was planed to spend from November, 2nd till November, 22nd so that 23 to arrive to Kiev as on November, 24th sportsmen should transit weighting.

Thus, realisation of two retractable and one deoxidiziry microcycles was supposed. It is necessary to mark that the collection site of negotiations has been selected not bad – Tyrnyauz from Kabardino-Balkariya, 1100 metres above sea level. But on it all pluses concluded, as hostels and gymnasiums were not heated, though in the street snow already lay. Agings were spent three times a day. It is known that at such loads immunodefence of the sportsman has a downward tendency, that is requirements of agings and residing should be comfortable enough. Otherwise various diseases are possible, as was confirmed in Tyrnyauze. Besides, for November, 12th have been scheduled audit sparringi between the maiden and second numbers by which one effects the ultimate line-up was spotted.

Allowing for easly enough level of readiness of sportsmen, it is possible to perceive that audit sparringi were transmuted into the small championship of Russia which one transited for 22 days prior to the beginning of the World championship. Thus, the time for psychics recovery to some sportsmen at whom the strain has outgrown in intensity, could not suffice. Therefore it was accepted the correct solution on realisation of the deoxidiziry microcycle in house requirements is unique. However it any more has not helped some sportsmen also they have appeared in the World championship considerably below the capabilities.

Specific example of some organizational flaws the World championship on a kickboxing among fans which one transited in the end of November, 1995 in Kiev when observance of the diagramme of an output of sportsmen on a ring was faster exclusion, than norm, and a huge location of the Palace of sport in which one competitions were held can minister, was not heated also air temperature did not exceed 10 degrees. So from A.Zhmakina’s all four cracked eggs which one all the same has benefited this championship, any has not transited according to the diagramme! The maiden duel with Norwegian Gerulfsonom was delayed at 12 o’clock. The second and fourth cracked eggs also have transited with the significant time delays, and the third duel with the repeated world champion E.Kutybaevym, assigned for November, 27th, has been led on November, 26th in 15 minutes after A.Zhmakina’s cracked eggs from R.Sajadovym.

As a rule professional competitions are organised much better, than amateur. It is caused considerably a smaller amount of participants and the best financing. However and methods of a psychologic control here are more refined and are manifold. An example title cracked eggs for a rank of the world champion on a kickboxing among professionals under version WAKO-PRO in a superheavy weight category (Jamburg, Russia 1996) can minister.

To dispute a title Janagasava (Japan) and the world champion of 1995 among fans under version WAKO A.Zhmakin (Russia) should the world champion of 1995 among professionals under version WKA. The athlete has been invited To an event of illness of one of sportsmen with a higher rating, the world champion of 1995 among professionals under versions PKC and RCFA D.Maje (France).

It is necessary to mark that psychologic pression of the Japanese side has begun practically right after signings of contracts on realisation of title cracked eggs and after the sponsor of Russian side GP of "Jamburggazdobycha" has transfered the indispensable total to account the organizer of a match – Vseevrazijsky federation of a kickboxing. According to the contract cracked eggs between And.

ZHmakinym and Janagasavoj should transit full-contact in section. However Japanese a month before an initiation of competitions have reported that they are failed to lead cracked eggs in this section, giving reasons it is A.Zhmakina’s 97 in major weight, 5 kg against 88 kg of Janagasavy (thus by Japanese rules the open weight category begins about 75 kg). Further the Japanese side has reported that they agree to arrive, if the duel is led in section lou-kik where kickings on a hip are permitted. For us it there was literally "blow below the belt" as A.Zhmakin specialised exceptional in section full-contact where has conquered a title of the world champion. The maiden response was – to be failed! But then so much resources will appear spent in vain, and the main thing in Jamburge waited for A.Zhmakina where it consider as the. It has spotted final award – it is necessary to be plotted and appear, though we perceived that for a month to master a new engineering device and to include it in the turned out speed keys it is almost impossible. A leah It is necessary to speak – what psychologic load has laid down on arms dvadtsatidvuhletnego the guy. However psychologic attack of Japanese has gained the prolongation: after arrival to Jamburg, after A.Zhmakina’s weighting the Japanese to be weighed it was failed, and the administration of Japanese delegation has demanded magnification of a prize fund for the sportsman, giving reasons it that A.Zhmakin has appeared more heavily Janagasavy though this point has been folded also our sportsman could have any weight. Negotiations lasted up to an initiation of a duel and all three sportsmen were malaxated. Thus to an output on a ring of Sasha did not know the rival. Eventually David Maje has appeared it.

However, A.Zhmakin all the same has defeated, and ahead of schedule. Hardly it could happen without the applicable psychologic preparation. After all in such events a mental strain, increasing, can transfer in mental intensity and the sportsman falls in a state termed as a start fever (SL) and defined by jar of functions and systems, ensuring activity, slope of energetic capabilities is watched. In this state the outcome of a battle is absolutely not predicted, though much more chances that it will be negative. It is quite clear that state SL is undesirable.

It is necessary to mark that unchecked state SL can lead to sharp slope of a mental strain and passage in extremely dangerous state, practically not spinnable to correction and termed as start apathy (DV).

Allowing for all aforesaid, it is possible to draw a conclusion about extreme relevance of application of means and psychopedagogics methods in SBE and, specially, in sport of the higher reachings which one along with physical, engineering and tactical types of preparation, and also physical aftertreatment is included a constituent in system of integral preparation of the sportsman of high proficiency.

Philosophy and outlook of quoters of a direction of the zen-Buddhism

The overwhelming majority of the single combats which have originated in Korea, Burma, Vietnam and other countries East and South East Asia are grounded on the philosophy borrowed from China or Japan, therefore their cleft reviewing is deprived any sense. In them in various variations principles konfutsianskoj morals are intertangled, Taoist and Buddhist meditative systems, in some cases are saved rudimentary pieces of autochthonous cults. Not to be unfounded, we will give a row of examples.

In a bottom hapkido, recognised as the Korean national martial art the Taoist symbolics of eight trigrams which are marking out through the difficult associative array all appearances and regularities of world around and Buddhist meditation has laid down. The person by means of this symbolics realises the gear of a turnover of energy ki (tsi) and puts itself in centre of the yielded turnover, concentrating energy in itself and directing it to the necessary bed. Thus it is necessary to adhere to ten precepts taken from Taoist and Buddhist philosophy: to remember that the environmental nature is energy; to adhere to a focusing trajectory to the skew field of energy of the root and land; following this trajectory, to develop the energetic capabilities; to use energy of the nature in eight directions; to use only defensive receptions; to care of prosperity of the country and all mankind; to respect the order and public morals; to respect any person and to be retiring in the behaviour; To be aimed to the highest skill in all; to respect all martial arts.

In a bottom of philosophy of the Vietnamese martial arts (in) principles konfutsianstva, the Buddhism and daosizma, procedures Chinese a chi kung have laid down. The term "chi" means unity of physical forces and spirit and is close Chinese tsi.

Spirit hardening is perceived as faultless ownership of a skew field and the weapon, led up to automatism and performed on level of the infraconscious. This art of the driving, different split-hair accuracy and softness, in latitude and smoothness. All motions are fulfilled on strict to determinate directions, thus the special attention is converted on the deep, accented breath, the person is sunk in itself, released with experiences and cares of an external world.

Two factors are indispensable for their making: by abbreviation of an orifice and muscles of a belly concentration of interior energy and attention on breath and control of it. Each teacher as such method contributes in saving and solidifying of health both physical, and mental, to enhancement of all builders of martial art should know About it.

Extending the above-stated, we bring to attention of the reader the following table


The PURPOSE — to ensure the applicable military preparation to citizens for protection of concerns of country.

TASKS For military men – to perfect military skill for the sake of victory reaching over the specific opponent.

For friars – to attain the spiritual and physical perfection leading to interflow to the Dao or to an appropriation of longevity (daosy), or to reaching clarifications (Buddhists).

For adherents of national schools – to attain psychosomatic perfection and to join spiritual tradition of ancestors, thereby having found the new form of existence contributing in withstanding to unfavorable conditions of environment.

For government officials – to attain the higher wisdom or level of the is intellectual-physical perfection termed «the ideal husband».

PRINCIPLES — Decencies, integrity, unities and harmonies of opposites, concentration and the sensibleness, nurturing accomplishment of exercise (deceleration).


1. Special physical exercises of martial arts with the weapon and without the weapon.

2. Obshcherazvivajushchie exercises, run, overcoming of hindrances, floating, rowing and so forth

3. Riding, control of battle chariots.

4. Meditative and breathing exercises.

5. Massage.

6. The count and usage of environmental factors.

7. Sacramental and etiquette.

8. General educational subjects: ethics and etiquette, mathematics, a calligraphy, rhetoric, music, dances.


Trainer occupations of the Contest interior (schools, monasteries, troops, communities) and the indicative character.

Dramatized sparringi and cracked eggs.

Real marchings, cracked eggs and battles.


1. Education: static meditation, complexes of battle exercises, sparringi with a various level of conditionality.

2. Tutorings: zvukorezonansnyj (words), mysleobraznyj (ideomotornyj), practical exercise (in alleviated requirements, in standard, in complicated – in the course of examinations, a contest and so forth).


1. State: educational institutions, army, district troops.

2. National: companies ushu, yard sides ushu, schools.

3. Monastic: monasteries, communities, monastic troops.

You, when pray, enter in thy room and, having shut a door, return grace to thy Father, Which one in secret; and thy Father, seeing secret, will render to you explicitly. (Evang. From the Matthew, gl. 6, verses 5. 6)

Principles samurajskoj philosophies and its influencing on military arts

The set of rules of behaviour of the ideal warrior of feudal Japan has gained a title "busido", that is «a trajectory of the warrior». In its bottom concepts of the Buddhism and konfutsianstva, the trajectories intertangled with Taoist concept as morally-ethical category and with standings sintoizma – national religion of Japanese have been supposed. In busido have discovered reflex problems of life and human psychics, problems of a role of the person in world around, meaning of the life, good and harm were solved, measure of moral worth and a moral ideal were spotted. Education of the warrior in the spirit of busido meant that he should understand a personal moral imperative in relation to the sovereign, self-contained value characteristic activities and morally denounce itself(himself) for violation of obligations and a debt.

Sintoizm represents ancient politeisticheskuju religion of Japanese in which one combined a nature cult, primitive animism and a faith in the magic, evolving in the expressed love to the nature and its spirits, to ancestors and their spirits, to characteristic country and the emperor who is a linear descendant of the goddess of the sun of Amaterasu. From sinto in busido have transferred two establishing concepts: patriotism and vernopoddanichestvo, the acquired hypertrophied bars.

Principles a zen became a philosophical bottom samurajskoj ethics. Dzensky ideas of strict self-testing and self-control have been raised in a virtue rank. These qualities were considered as the most valuable in character of the Samurai.

Meditation worked out reliance and composure in the face of death which one was perceived not as decay, killing, and in the capacity of rearrangements and embodyings in other appearance of a certain aggregate of the Dharmas which are unique original human nature. Therefore individual "I" was perceived immortal as the nature, and the pavor before death was seen in the capacity of by one of consciousness illusions of which one it is necessary to get rid.

samurajskoj philosophies have influenced forming and konfutsianskie demands about fidelity to a debt, obedience to the mister and enhancement of the person. The morals of the warrior were plotted on implementation of idea of fidelity which one was perceived not as fidelity to the emperor, ruling class or the state as a whole, and fidelity to the sovereign with whom the warrior was in protection and ministering ratios. The Sintoistsky principle of fidelity was boosted by a Buddhist standing about foregone transient character of all earth and temporalities of life that boosted spirit of self-sacrifice of the Samurai and its forgetfulness to death.

Fidelity in relation to the mister – the first konfutsianskaja virtue – demanded the complete dismissal of the Samurai of the private interests, except as specified waiving of characteristic inclinings if the prince insisted on violation of the accepted morally-ethical canons.

Konfutsiansky principle «to smooth down offence justice» it was converted to a principle "katakiuti" – blood feud which one was accepted in busido in the capacity of a method of moral sufficing for offence, implementation of sense of justice. The concept of justice spawned concept of nobleness which one was identified with konfutsianskim measure of call of duty as a high initiation of the moral order, frankness of soul and acts.

Nobleness allowed to perish, if it was necessary and for slaying, if it was required. Call of duty – "weights" should overbalance affections and emotions of the person – parents without hesitation sacrificed children, and Samurais – the life for the sake of the feudal lord.

Such quality as bravery, included concepts of bravery, courage and boldness. Reasonable bravery, and for example vain hazard and unreasonable death thus admitted involved on the Samurai a shame. One of the pivotal principles konfutsianskoj traditions – honouring of seniors was implemented in busido through a modesty principle when for ordinary Samurais it was impossible to hoist a head in the presence of the mister. But, simultaneously, since the childhood the self-respect was nurtured, and honour and glory were appreciated more expensively life, therefore for their protection in a course without meditations the weapon was started up.

The falsehood of the Samurai was equated to cowardice, therefore the word was a truthfulness warranty, and on necessity of an oath looked as at humiliation.

The love to the weapon, unstranding in samurajskoj to an environment, suggested not only sense of self-esteem, but also liability as a sword followed applies only in case of real necessity, and its causeless or unjustified usage was equated to dishonour that, however, was not spread to interrelations of the Samurai with the lowest estates – peasants or town-dwellers.

Ability has been led up to enhancement to be self-controlled and control the senses by Samurais. It was contributed by transmutation of the zen-Buddhism into a spiritual bottom for military estate. Reversal events voennonachalnikov behind advice to Buddhist friars were frequent. Not to tremble before unexpected hazard and to save thus clearness of mind, to realise characteristic acts and activities and capability soberly to think – here of advantages of the Samurais, worked out giving thanks dzenskoj to practice.

Ease of parting with life in a combination to absolute calmness and sincere clearness has been caused dzenskim teaching about illusiveness of life, but simultaneously a life brevity spawned its special aesthetic perception – the it is shorter, the more perfectly. The death of a physical skew field did not mean the extremity of existence of an individual as its degeneration in lifes to come was not subject to doubt. The peculiar etiquette of death to which one the ceremonial of suicide by belly ripping – "hara-kiri" or "seppuku" has been connected has been worked out.

Assidenous meditation (dzadzen) promoted a self-dimple of Samurais and education in them of an exposure and patience. In some cases for reaching satori in the course of the active meditation used unexpected physical action – shock by a rod or a training sword at training fencing. Owing to the strong psychological distress as what the clarification was considered, at the Samurai the new view on life and on the place in it which one did not yield to a logical explanation or the specification statement was displayed, but the person acquired capability extremely to control the will – the most valuable quality for the quoter of military estate.

Interflow konfutsianstva with the Buddhism and sinto has spawned a tenet of fidelity and implicit subordination within the limits of monogynopaedium, as social structure, to the father; within the limits of a feudal princedom – to the prince (dajme); within the limits of the state – to the shogun (with XII — XIII centuries). The Konfutsiansky demand of moral enhancement by an observance of the laws of monogynopaedium, a company and the state completely matched to principles of feudal Japan.

Instruction of the young Samurai was plotted on Buddhist emotional neglect to death, konfutsianskom to a cult of filial respect and sintoistskoj accuracies to the feudal lord. Since early years the son of the Samurai received as a gift the toy sword cut from a tree that inured to love the weapon and to realise a fittings to samurajskomu to estate. Ability to check the activities was nurtured and to abstain from expression of senses by exclamations or stones. Composure and the calmness were worked out, helping not to lose presence of mind even at the most severe trials.

Young Samurais should own in perfection fencing receptions on swords and halberds, to shoot from an onion, to be able to be converted with a spear, the nobility dzju-dzjutsu and to exploit. All spiritual and physical capabilities of the Samurai have been subordinated to mastering by military skill to struggle with the opponent and to conquer it with the weapon or without it. At first followed achieve mental balance of the warrior and only then to initiate with forming of physical developed person.

Samurajsky military disciplines in the title have a hieroglyph "to" ("trajectory") which was marking out an ideal of the true Samurai, learnt themselves, that is quitted on the correct trajectory.

From all types samurajskih single combats by the most honoured was kendo as the sword was considered in the capacity of means of forming of the person, was a central subject of physical and mental concentration which one finally contributed in interflow of the person to the nature, to the Universe. Thanks to self-profound meditation a skew field and soul of the warrior remission of room and a time attained – the fencer was completely released from a surrounding medium and its thought have been routed exceptional on a control. Of victory it was prohibited to think, as the disturbance connected to it leads to self-control loss, forces down breath and slackens muscles.

For Samurais such military arts, as ba-dzjutsu (horsemanship), jabusame (shooting from an onion from a horse), inuomono (persuit on a horse of a dog, shooting on a moving target), with-dzjutsu (art of ownership by a spear) and naginata (fencing on halberds), sujej (floating in the complete implement and with the weapon) were obligatory. Osobenostju all these arts there was that have left the mark on them a cult sinto, konfutsianskaja philosophy and dzenskie meditation systems. Thus physical strong and tolerant warriors to whom the sensation of fear was alien, different were plotted by composure and an exposure, capable to the death to battle on fields feudal mezhduusobits.

The main philosophical doctrines of China and their influencing on evolution SBE

The chan-Buddhism, usual in China in VI century as a self-supporting filosofsko-religious direction, has occurbed on Japanese soil in XII — XIV centuries. "Zen" is a transcriptional of the Chinese hieroglyph "chan" according to phonetic norms of Japanese tongue. In spite of the fact that the zen-Buddhism has the Chinese roots, its pithy part differs from the classic chan-Buddhism. Besides, the zen became a fragment of outlook of the majority of Japanese, without dependence from their fittings to the Buddhism.

The doctrine a zen is subject today to understanding as a conduct of life of Japanese, it is not so much running to religious ideas, how much certain stereotypes of behaviour and the intellections connected to the various sides of life activity of people.

In the modern Japan to three reference directions a zen (Soto, Rindzaj, Obaku) belongs about 10 % of the population of country, but influencing of philosophy a zen is much wider.

The maiden Japanese trainer a zen of Ejsaj doubly in XII century went to China.

Having returned therefrom after successful self-improvement in 1191, he has headed school Rinzaj and has begun intense implementation a zen in various levels of population. In a bottom of the doctrine of school the idea of subitaneous inspiration – satori has been supposed. For its reaching the system of incentives among which one the special place was occupied with koans – problems-riddles was inducted. Answers to them could be discovered in the course of focusing on inner meaning of a problem. For this purpose followed transfer from is formal-logic to dsoznatelno-associative thinking, in the course of passage and there was a spontaneous comprehension of sense of life. Lack of a procedure of passage to inspiration was principal difficulty, therefore only one aiming to it was insufficiently. Satori meant knowledge the person of the nature of the Buddha in itself then there set in unvulnerability for vital disturbances. The developed intuition as the inspiration was escaping of a vicious circle of limiting of human logic helped to discover escaping of the difficult situations. Absurdity of a koan guessed not so much logic nature of the answer, how much completeness of response physical and spiritual powers of the one to whom the problem was asked.

Development of the intuition, allowing to discover escaping of any inconvenient reality situation, occupied followers of school Rinzaj more than learning of sacred texts and practice of sacramentals, that is the priority before filosofsko-religious system of ideas of the zen-Buddhism was donated a creative enlightenment. Dzensky friars were engaged not only looking up of the shortest trajectory to inspiration and knowledge of of the nature of the Buddha, but also were aimed to a full-immersion in process of the activity, whatever it was, – tea ceremony, garden architecture art, stihoslozhenie, a calligraphy and so forth

Accomplishment of a fundamental postulate of the Buddhism «here and now» – here a bottom of any kind of activity. On a bottom a zen such types of martial arts, as kjudo and kendo, karate to and a judo unstrand.

School Soto founder – Dogen developed in practice a zen assidenous meditation – dzadzen. He stated that to reaching satori (clarification) leads, first of all, quiet sitting without what or is special object in views and speculations. The consciousness is gradually released from temporal cares and conditionalities, as ministers finally to its clarification.

School Soto doctrine has been connected to daily occupations of Japanese, their conduct of life. Friars in monasteries actively did manual work, and in some places and martial arts.

In XIV — XV centuries of idea a zen began to use protection of shoguns as the central authority in feudal wars needed the state practical system of self-discipline. The doctrine a zen combining with strict, targeted sacramentals, has acquired comprehensive influencing. For professional warriors it became a bottom of their trajectory, to artists and poets it helped to uncover secrets of life. The zen became meaning of the life for the majority of Japanese, but its essence and remained a puzzle – it is inexplicable from the point of view of the is rationalised-logic approach. Its action can be experienced, felt, worried, but it is impossible to learn reason and to feature in the form of torn logically harmonous system. It was possible to become the friar for a while to build new vital plots, to devote itself to process of art creativity or to gain a wise advice concerning tactics of a conduct of combat.

Dajkudzi grounded in 1324 and consisting of twenty three monasteries, subordinate to principal centre became the largest dzenskim a temple complex.

Some temple gardens are unclosed for visitors and in them it is possible to indulge in the contemplation, self-sunk speculation about characteristic life. Harmony of environmental room allows to bring together together in consciousness all mosaic pattern of life behind garden walls, brings a regeneration and deep sincere rest.

dzenskie thinkers compare a consciousness ideal state to moon reflex in a water unruffled surface: the mirror mirrors everything that falls in its flap of vision, without any contortions and complements, moon light is passionless and impartial. Any estimates or emotions hinder to see the true pattern of events and essence of subjects. Followers a zen reject notional thinking as in this case subjects and material world appearances are identified with those concepts which one mark out them. The word can fix any one side of a subject or an appearance that in itself instal for the world having an inexhaustible amount of levels and aspects of reviewing, the rigid frameworks having deforming character. The word cannot penetrate into the essence of things at least because adequately does not mirror all completeness of the information arriving in a brain in the form of visual, kinetic, acoustical, olfactory or tactile feels. Therefore reaching of purity and serenity of consciousness is is possible only giving thanks besponjatijnomu to thinking.

The concept human "I" from the point of view of followers a zen is an effect of selection of characteristic personal structure from world around of in the capacity of isolated unique construction. Psychologic under "I" aggregate of is meant that the person perceives, feels and thinks in the yielded specific instant. Therefore individual "I" of each person are memories on its past, integrated into the uniform consistent pattern, identified with the characteristic person. Thus, the word "I" distorts genuine sense of this concept consisting in a flow of feels continuously succeeding each other, reflexes, emotions, experiences and the thoughts, some of them even neosoznavaemy that is why especially cannot be united in a single whole. Consciousness reorganisation in dzenskoj to crop, as well as generally in the Buddhism, demands getting rid of concept individual "I" as it counters world around and hinders an appropriation of nonseparable unity with life. Harmony pertaining to the person and the nature is possible under condition of that the person realises that it – its part.

To attain a clarification and to begin to see clearly a skew field of the Buddha in the soul, it is necessary to be failed from any purposeful practical activities and to become either a hermit, or the friar dzenskogo a monastery. But this superior purpose is accessible not all, therefore many use methods a zen as a bottom of the psychophysical training. Operation with consciousness deduces psychics on natural and spontaneous level of perception of the world and contributes in mobilisation of the hidden reserves pledged in human nature, capable to be uncovered under certain conditions and in a special state. Dzensky practice of selfregulation allows the person to attain arbitrarily a state of the higher level of mobilisation of physical, intellectual and spiritual capabilities. The main methods of operation with consciousness are the concentration of attention, that is focusing on object and passive contemplation. These two methods of self-action on consciousness mutually boost and add each other, contributing in intuitive instant and adequate reacting on any external actions.

Besides direct operation with consciousness exists and mediated, guessing change of character of operation of cerebral activity through operation with a skew field and breath, but nevertheless concentration and understanding in practice a zen have the priority character.

Concentration allows to assemble together physical and mental forces of the person and to direct them on the necessary object, ensuring their most effective application. Ability how to concentrate attention on one object thus unstrands for a long time, and ability instantaneously to switch from one object to another. At the moment of concentration energetic capabilities of the person as there is a superimposing of a present energy potential on concealed spare capacities that leads to a peculiar resonance effect multiply are boosted. For the adherent of martial arts mastering by concentration practice means ability to direct energy of reception in the given bed and to ensure the interior content of any exterior force driving. Rather well illustrates concepts "kontsenratsija" or "concentration" and "understanding" With. Levin (1994) – «When we, reading the book, we transfer from one word to another, quality of concentration allows us to direct attention to page. At the same time sensibleness allows to perceive words which one we read».

If concentration is grounded primarily on a consciousness strain contemplation guesses the complete relaxing. In the course of meditation too there is a concentration, but not on outer objects, and on internal feels, emotions, thoughts and so forth In a state of meditation external world perception is exchanged by perception of the interior. The attention is cut off from external actions and allows the person to perceive internal forces controlling a skew field. Thus, meditation is a self-dimple, contemplation of phenomena of psychics. The thinking thus does not disappear, but there are gears of the logical control and an estimate of the endured.

Various forms dzenskoj have meditations both borrowed, and original character. Many types of static meditation are borrowed from the Indian and Taoist yoga, it is possible to consider as the special form of meditation resolution process dzenskih paradoxical puzzles (koans) and internal conversations (mondo). It is necessary to mark however that practicing meditation of focusing which one is inherent to many filosofsko-religious teachings of the East and, according to tradition, only the Buddha learnt to forty its types, the zen has saved a Buddhist doctrine core – understanding meditation which one methodology is completely assigned to the Buddha.

Besides concepts satori, in a zen there is a concept "kense". In between there are insignificant odds: kense is a feel of inspiration, and satori – inspiration realisation. The unique purpose the ageing zen is reaching satori as the highest state which one the Buddhist can reach, is its interflow to a skew field of the Buddha, dissolution of the "I" in world around that is is possible only by means of satori.

Sometimes in dzenskih schools instead of dzadzen it is applied kinhin – the promenade meditation, at which one arm should be added at a chest, one step introduces advance on half-foots forward. Steps are introduced with breath, that is one step – an inspiration, other step – an expiration. Kinhin ensures physical rest from sitting and gives the chance to switch attention to other object. Routine kinhin extends sessions of meditation and represents the elementary type of dynamic meditation.

For the foreman of martial arts meditation is relevant that helps to learn naturally and loosely to work in extremal situations, to discover is unique the correct solutions in a contingency and promptly to react to attack of the opponent and how that least expects.

Besides concentration and meditation, mode of work with consciousness in a zen is also sacramental. It not only spots outer side of behaviour of participants of activity, but also will organise senses, thoughts, experiences on a blanket ceremonial for all that leads to feel of the complete interior liberation and unity.

In meditation there is nothing mystical, it causes real psychologic detrusions in the course of a particular type of activity within the limits of a special psychologic situation. There is a unification physical and spiritual powers, pereprogramirovanie psychics of the person, selfregulation of certain psychophysiological qualities. Useless, or noises creating in a yielded specific instant, psychics devices are switched out of use, and those devices which one contribute in the solution of essential tasks, to the contrary, become aggravated. If the consciousness operated in the customary regimen it would not manage slenderness and operationability of reacting, for example, in martial arts.

The integrated situation assessment, making of a complex fashion gears up information processing by consciousness and easies spontaneous acceptance of the specific solution. The consciousness reorganisation of work is grounded on inhibition of activity of the left cerebral hemisphere and activating of the right, perceiving patterns in the is specific-shaped form Is notional-logic structure of thinking, characteristic for the left hemisphere, is temporarily deduced from operation by means of usage of koans, dip in sacramental or meditative practice.

In any kind dzenskih arts the skew field is the instrument with which one help the consciousness works. In martial arts the formula was added: reason – intuition – a reality, that is a concentration of attention on the opponent, interflow of an ego to the person of the opponent and instinctive response to all its activities.

The maiden type of military-sports art of Japan, tested for itself zen-Buddhism influencing, became kjudo – shooting from an onion which one was not so much engineering of a target kill, how much by to clarification reaching.

The position of the marksman at which one both arms are direct prolongation of shoulders, ensured relaxing of a thoracal musculation and alleviating of a cycle of breath.

At shooting the onion, a deflection and the purpose should be drained off together a skew field. Shooting should introduce that mentally prolongs the flying to the purpose together with a deflection.

The purpose kendo (fencing) is not killing of the opponent, and self-improvement and fate of the fencer endways depends on a level of its spiritual evolution. During a duel the fencer will avoid cultivations if it has attained the highest level of confessor. The one who has attained a clarification, "I" am beyond characteristic and is capable, without reflecting to lead thousand alternatives of cracked eggs. Kendo abounds with breathing exercises, ritual activities and the receptions taken from an arsenal a zen.

In aikido the procedure is applied to development of skills of observation sejka tanden, that is instruction of a concentration of attention on the heel of a characteristic belly. That activities were instinctively exact, it is necessary to train this concentration at daily businesses and even in the sleep. As a result of agings of receptions of aikido connection between thought and driving which one in a real situation will operate at infraconscious level is shaped. Ageing of any physical activity is tracked by making of the associative patterns in imagination. From connection between thought and the driving, operating at infraconscious level, thousand receptions which one are united in complexes of movements are added.

In karate the relevant constituent of psychophysical training are the methods of a diaphragmal respiration practiced also in the Indian yoga, Taoist systems, ushu and so forth Receptions karate are completed in a combination to breath. It is considered that the strong, concentrated expiration tracked by cry (kiaj), helps the person to mass at the moment of shock all force in the necessary point of an arm or a leg. There is even a concept "kiaj-dzjutsu", meaning art of concentration of interior energy (ki) at the moment of touch with a skew field of the opponent or any diverse obex. In this concept enters not only an intonement as a method of emphasis of a solving stage of realisation of the reception, representing difficult dyhatelno-muscular jerk, but also enhancement of temporary and space co-ordination of movements.

Burst "ki", per se, can mean ability to insert to shock not only arm driving, but also the pulse of all skew field multiply boosted by action on the opponent. The intonement "kiaj" is tracked by a reflex strain of muscles of a belly that advocates this part of a skew field from possible counterblow and helps to overpower a pain. A charge of emotions, the prisoner in a sound of a human voice, allows to deduce for an instant the opponent from psychologic equal balance.

Mastering by breath bottoms has beneficent action on mind and body irrespective of komplektsii or physical development of the person. Without the correct breath cannot be neither concentrations of attention, nor dynamic or static meditation, control of interior energy or driving.

Such methods of breathing ageing practise school karate kiokusinkaj for education of self-trust, self-control and fearlessness, as "ibuki" and "nogare". Ibuki is the active system of breath contributing in concentration of energy for attack. Thus the quiet inspiration matches to a stage in, and a sharp expiration with barracking – a stage jan. Two alternatives of system nogare allow to save an even breathing in a control and to work out composure at waiting of an offence of the opponent.

In karate exists also santin-kata the training movements, intended for capability education to control muscles of any district of a skew field and reaching embroider levels of co-ordination of a skew field and spirit. With that end in view ""the soft"" and "rigid" motions are multiply iterated, that is at the relaxed muscles and their compound stress in co-ordination by vigorous breath. Optimisation of movements santin allows to create ideal model of ageing: the consciousness subordinates to itself a skew field, and a skew field – consciousness. All system of movements in karate submits to three major principles: unconscious, leads and nedejanija.

The lead principle allows the fighter to anticipate enemy actions at level of infraconscious, instinctive responses. Any protective action acquires character of the realised implementation of the infraconscious. The running to a lead principle gives the chance to the fighter to secure itself against unreasoned activities in reply to a sham attack of the opponent.

The principle nedejanija is connected to relaxing, an avoidance of intensity and long-lead effort. Thanks to this principle, the crushing blow is superimposed only after the attack of the opponent relaxing its defence. Attack coolly is expected that instigates the opponent on premature, not always the prepared activity. Thus, the hearth nedejaniem is perceived activity in a latent form, trapping the opponent.

The Dzensky principle of pure consciousness is implemented in practice kata, training passage to besponjatijnomu, to intuitive thinking. Kata is the peculiar form of dynamic meditation consisting in multiple repetition of ligaments of devices of the basic engineering. All kata are grounded on a principle of alternating of opposite principles in and jan, implemented through intermuscular co-ordination with respiratory cycles and the motions meaning stages of protection and an offence. Practice kata allows to complete both psychologic, and the energetic nuances of engineering displayed in real cracked eggs is spontaneous and is unpredictable for the opponent.

Operation by an interplay principle in and jan is practice slow training sparringa when associates will organise uniform psychologic system. Per se, there is the fresh-killed meditation developing an intuitive anticipation of logic of evolution of a duel.

The modern foremans karate consider that «karate is a zen, and the zen is karate», that is their skill consists that physical and taktiko-technical devices are charged by spiritual sense – without it skill disappears.

It is obvious that Dzigoro of Kano – the judo creator on which one trajectory gradually there are many directions of martial arts of the East was most progressive of foremans of martial arts of Japan. This outstanding teacher has demonstrated that sports attitude of single combat at all does not contradict its spiritual essence, and vice-versa boosts it. Unfortunately many adherents not only a judo, but also other oriental combat sports, do not realise it, contrasting sport with martial arts and giving reasons it that sport is oriented on effect. But after all and martial arts of Japan have been aimed at effect, that is it was art for the sake of art. And Dzigoro of Kano one of the maiden has applied to single combat concept "to" (a trajectory, a cardinal principle) in difference from "dzjutsu" (art).

It is necessary to perceive that the teleologism depends not on an activity type, and from that is as this activity is made. If the sportsman specialising in any kind of sport, realises that its activity is not the purpose, and a means of spiritual enhancement then he will fathom also that the result in competitions is the paste for trajectories of this enhancement. And then becomes obvious that sport is the best that has invented mankind in the capacity of means of conversion of consciousness. As the famous expert of meditation of Osho has validly noted what easily to meditate in a monastery or a cave and it is much more difficult on a market, that is in real life. Therefore heat of wrestling is difficult for exchanging enhancement in landlocked room of conventional school of east martial arts though the seclusion certainly should be present at sport practice.

Taoist roots Chinese ushu

Daosizm has occurbed in China on a boundary VI — V centuries BC Its founder the legendary aged man Lao-tszy who has abandoned after the unique book «is considered the Dao of Dye a jing» in which one teaching philosophy are stated. At philosophy centre daosizma the idea of the multiple-purpose Trajectory of all things – the Dao lies. It spawns the whole world and all appearances, itself thus remaining perpetually invisible and not displayed.

Lao-tszy was born in 604 BC in the field of the state Chu Ku (a province Hubei in the Peoples Republic of China). "Lao-tszy" («the Old son») is its nickname as, according to a legend, it old was more narrow at a birth. His name of Lie Po Young or Lie Ayr. Abandoning country for the reason that the dynasty Chow began to tend to downgrade, he has written «the Dao of Dye Tszin» at the desire of the official guarding boundary.

The maiden paragraph of the book states: «the Dao which one can be expressed in words, not is a perpetually Dao…» It is considered also that Lao-tszy only has resurrected daosizm emperor Juan Di (2693 — 2547 BC was which one founder), and the method of Taoist meditation was known in China long before Lao-tszy. Taoist teaching differently term as teaching Juan-Lao.

Three patriarchs daosizma Lao-tszy, Chzhuan-tszy, Le-tszy match up concept "Dao" only to concept "Trajectory". Thus in their concept it is told nothing about the purpose, about mokshe, a nirvana, a clarification, God. The main thing for everyone – to discover a trajectory. But it cannot be discovered, following somebody as the Dao is similar to flying of an auk in the root which one does not reserve traces. «The dao means to be on the Trajectory and to abide so that not to be distinct from the Trajectory. This existence is uniform: we are not partitioned off from it. Separation, idea of individuality are rather illusory.

We are bridged together, we a unit… ».

The idea of the Dao had further huge meaning in the chan-Buddhism, neokonfutsianstve, and also in all martial arts of the East. The concept "dzjutsu" ("art") is not casual changed on "to" ("trajectory") in process of development of Japanese martial arts, after all, on a being, the Dao is one of basic principles of meditation which one also has no purpose, and is it during each true moment.

The dao is out of the sensual world, but is perpetually existing first principle and a jerk of any appearance, is displayed in a numberless amount of fashions and changes. A dao it is impossible to contradict – the person should follow the Dao, foster it and begin to see clearly its implication in itself. Only thus it is possible to attain the higher wisdom. In Dao comprehension the sense of practice ushu, and daily agings and skill finishing in martial art to perfection – only indispensable steps on a trajectory of this comprehension is concluded also. Thus some authors compare Dao comprehension to such type of extremal activity, as boating on a cable rope:« If you go on a cable rope you discover two things: the thinking is shut down because of retention of hazard and when you really equilibrate, neither to the left, nor to the right, precisely in the middle, great silence descends on you, such about which one you did not suspect earlier. And so happens in all (especially in martial arts – primech. A bus). All life is a boating on a cable rope ». In this case the treatment of concept of the Dao is similar with Buddhist« a median trajectory ».

One of basic concepts not only Taoist teaching, but also the theory of martial arts is "tsi". This term has no direct analogue in one tongue, but it can be translated words "pneuma" or "energy", perceiving them a certain multiple-purpose space substance, peculiar pervotkan a cosmos, having energetic nature and circulating in the person.

The higher creative force contributing in self-realisation of the person, strong-willed pulse () – will of the Root implemented in the person is. Celestial pulse regulates circulation tsi, and tsi, in turn, boosts physical force. From here it is born well-known in ushu a principle of "three internal correspondences»: each activity of the person is shaped by will (), (leah) tsi and physical force. For reaching of harmony of these three initiations the fighter should reach states of an absolute peace of mind and then he becomes capable to perceive pulses of natural naturalness. Its any activity or even an intention will be any more activity of the person, and Dao superactivity.

Exterior driving in ushu is an effect of ecumenical conversion: fulfilling receptions, the person endures Cosmos life. The complex initiation is a sharing in and jan, end of movements – passage in and jan in a state of original inextensibility, that is the Great limit. The person is transmuted into a messenger between heaven and earth, between an interior and exterior reality.

Following a flow of natural changes, it incorporates all phenomena of the world of forms, having stripped characteristic reason. The person reincarnates in the certain space value realising vpletennost in a tissue of the world. If from the Root the person gained energy jan-tsi to charge a skew field with energy in-tsi, it was necessary «to root in the Earth». The principle of a steady stand is connected To this standing in many styles ushu. Implementation of a principle of "rootage" are meditativno the breathing exercises executable in high stands without driving («long-pillar stand»).

The person represented a certain Miniuniverse in which one the certain part of a skew field matches to the macrocosmical initiation. Integrity of this Miniuniverse predetermined spiritually-corporal unity of the person.

The corporality generally was perceived as a potentiality of a physical skew field to lead spiritual life, that is the indivisible prenatal unity of the spiritual was implied and physical has begun. For example, the effort (jing) equally radiates both from a locomotorium, and from strong-willed pulse and depends not only from physical trenirovannosti, but also on a special morale of consciousness. (Leah) at effort implementation will be involved not only physical force, but also circulation tsi in an organism. The concept of shock in ushu meant implementation of spiritually-physical unity: its plotting could be begun by means of physical force, and to conclude burst tsi.

Taoist hollow is the world in a potency. Therefore, speaking about sense ushu as resetting to original hollow, it is necessary to mean constant overcoming of external shapes (movements, receptions) behind which one the essence source ushu, that is the Dao is unclosed. One of the major filosofsko-psychological principles daosizma is the naturalness principle (tszyzhan). Spontaneous naturalness in the nature world is implication of activity of the Dao. With reference to ushu (tajtszitsjuan) this principle demanded, that driving of the fighter were maximum unchained and spontaneous, originating as if is spontaneous and flowing in the absence of the realised motivating. As a result activity was committed spontaneously according to the Taoist concept nedejanija ("uvej"). It was thus relevant, that laws of natural driving of all parts of a human skew field were not broken. The interior calmness and slackness should combine with constant availability of consciousness to adequate and a fast response on exterior pulses.

The dao has no form, but motions ushu shape the changes spawned by this trajectory. In the Chinese tradition it was termed «to yield the form to shapeless». Such driving which one radiated from inside the person was considered as true, instead of was fulfilled by command or under the strong-willed command. In daosizme the concept of exterior simplicity of movements in ushu as most important thing – not engineering complication of reception, and capability to uncover through this reception depth of congenital properties of the person has been formulated. Only then activity will be effective.

The ideal fashion of the foreman ushu matches to an ideal fashion of the commander.

Both that and another are people of out-of-limit properties. Their qualities – to begin to see clearly hidden and to use hollow (Dao), ability to be in harmony with celestial conversion in and jan. Then polkovodcheskoe ability allows to conquer, being not aggressive as human policy, and «great not act», that is the Dao running is used not. A duel or battle it is not simple a footprint of satellite beam of crash of certain space forces, and realified, materialised, the most this crash, its earth reality. The ancient tract on military arts «tszi» («36 plots») sets up to Sanshilju 36 methods of management battle, but methods featured in it are applicable and to a duel of two fighters as have the multiple-purpose character. Single combat or battle of two armies is interpreted by means of categories in and jan: cracked eggs is their infinite passage, withstanding of soft and rigid.

Taoist systems of interior ageing, psychopractice and adjustment of circulation of interior energy tsi became the relevant effluent Chinese ushu.

These systems have spotted internal spiritual character of martial arts – any of them does not do without section "nejgun" ("internal work") or "nejdan" («vnutrennja alchemy») thanks to which one the effort a jing at the expense of control of consciousness and circulations tsi in an organism is attained. The system nejgun rendezvoused the person with spiritual powers of a universe and simultaneously preserved it against ill effects.

It is necessary to mark that in daosizme there is a concept "vejdan" «exterior alchemy» which one purpose was also immortality reaching, but at the expense of application of various elixirs and pills, usages of amulets, spells, etc. the Great value was attached ritual section of teaching.

It is considered that vejdan has originated later, than nejdan, and has ceased the existence approximately to ((((to century. However «the internal alchemy» borrowed to some degree ritualization of "exterior alchemy», and also its notional apparatus.

The most ancient procedures of interior art are procedures "daoin", "tuna" and "chi kung" («skill in control tsi»). Interior art in the core is connected to operation of the consciousness stimulated by a creative message of will, and breathing exercises represent only indispensable accessory. Nejgun is not only a complex of breathing and meditative exercises, hygienic and dietologicheskih prescriptions, but also a type of spiritual self-education. Effluents nejgun are connected to secret art of the Taoist magicians who were setting as the purpose reaching of immortality by interflow to the Dao and an enlightenment of the characteristic original nature.

Schools Chinese ushu, along with meditative practice and sacramental, borrowed at daosov and morally-ethical standard as virtues universal were the first step on a great trajectory to immortality. A certain row of prescriptions was required to be fulfilled not only daosam, but also to simple virtuous people. First of all it is five prohibitions: not to slay, not to drink some wine, not to lie, not to steal, not to commit adultery, and also ten kind acts: to honour parents, to observe fidelity to the mister and the trainer, to feel pity for all tvarjam, to help sufferers even to the detriment of itself, to release on will of animals and auks, to raise bridges, to plant trees, to plot home units and pits at roads, to catechize unreasonable people.

Usage of Taoist procedures in ushu has led to tight stranding of improving aspect with battle, to compulsory use of dyhatelno-meditative exercises. Methods nejgun were held down in the strict secret and methods of control tsi were uncovered by a current to only selected pupils at the instruction final stage. For comprehension of diverse life, extension of human life procedures daoin – complexes of improving breathing and gym exercises for realisation tsi on ports of a skew field and a slenderness appropriation were used.

The trajectory of enhancement of the characteristic nature began with mollification, that is reaching of a reconciliation of soul – the major property of the Dao. When in and jan dwell, they are bridged, spawning internal indistinguishability of any opposites. The most ancient technicians of enhancement of a skew field and psychopractice were implemented through simulation of animals – in gymnastics daoin there are such exercises as «a scrambling bear», «the auk who has been drawn out aloft», «a washing monkey» and so forth They symbolose a natural initiation and resetting of the person in a naturalness bosom. Later fashions of animals have discovered the reflex in styles ushu. «The play of five beasts» ("utsinsi") is considered the legendary creator of a complex Taoist vrachevatel Hua That. Further utsinsi has been developed by legendary magician Tao Huntszin who has added its several types of breath.

In VII century the philosopher and the physician Put Symjao has elaborated an internal system of psychophysical regulation "janshenshu" which one key principle was – «solid and mental are uniform». In system breathing exercises, methods of mollification of consciousness, a concentration of attention on solid feels, and also methods of rendition of outer objects were used. Exercises were fulfilled both in a statics, and in dynamics.

Consciousness operation in theories of internal styles should not be transmuted into any concentration on driving performances, in thought hard work. Any act of consciousness should represent free flow of thought and actualisation of creative will. In each driving limiting operation of consciousness, but this perpetually awake consciousness in a state nedejanija is indispensable.

It is considered that the concept previous a philosophical pair in-jan, the concept of the absolute termed "tajtszi" (a great limit), pictorially figured around, consisting of two halves is. Tajtszi the pattern that is one of fundamental standings daosizma and to which one should be aimed engaging in internal styles ushu means harmony and unity macro and micro. Characteristicly that founders daosizma considered change of aircraft attitude of a human skew field identically changes of aircraft attitude of a cosmos, that is passage tajtszi in a pair in-jan, then in five devices and further in eight trigrams.

Internal styles in the Chinese tradition are considered as not so much art of fisticuffs or gymnastics, how much a special type of filosofsko-psychological education.

Internal pace of the person differs non-uniformity and external shape plays back it. It is displayed in sharp changes of pace in style of Chen tajtszitsjuan, in explosive motions sinitsjuan, in interior alternating of a devastation and brimming in baguachzhan.

In practice the understanding of a characteristic orb as spiritual phenomenon transfers in embodiment of the specific receptions built on the arc motions or the specification statement of a circumference. The output for limits of the yielded path threatens with loss of a capability of adequate protection. Burst of an interior effort happens on orb boundary – the strongest shock in this case is struck. The orb boundary is always a boundary of touch with the opponent which one cannot be dropped inside. Therefore from its attack it is necessary to leave a sharp turn of all skew field as in sinitsjuan.

The concept of an effort of internal styles practically is not connected to muscular force, this special chuvstvovanie the opponent as itself, it is a view on the rival as though from inside it. «The effort slyshanija» is a capability to perceive on the slightest oscillations of a skew field of the opponent its intentions, to anticipate not only its physical driving, but even flying of its thought. «The understanding effort» allows to follow each gesture and a thought of the opponent, without entering in physical touch. Both types of an effort are attained by signing on a resonance with ecumenical pace.

It is considered that in internal styles duel outcome is determined to its initiation, cracked eggs self-development happens as an unaccountable running of the Dao, there is no necessity to reflect about tactics of cracked eggs or embodiment of receptions – is performed natural soprojavlenie interior human nature.

Original duplicity daosizma has caused its place in the Chinese crop as a messenger between its various levels and, in particular, between the Chinese and Indian traditions, making the significant impact on kitaizatsiju the Buddhism, and later having played the leading part in gaining in strength process of making Chinese religious sinkretizma.

Philosophical flow neokofutsiantsev has occurbed in XII — XIII centuries, having united to morally-ethical postulates konfutsianstva to Taoist metaphysical theories, having introduced in ushu the term "gunfu", the meaning moment of self-realisation and interior self-disclosure in the course of reaching of the higher skill, the moment of an appropriation of completeness of the vital power, attained after fostering by the person of the internal natural properties. Reaching gunfu is is possible as a result of refinement of consciousness from all detrital and recoveries of sight by the person of the true interior appearance. It not acquisition of any new engineering skills, is global reorganisation of all inner patterns of the individual, attaching to the person the new spiritual powers deducing process of creativity on a new twist of evolution. The person who has attained gunfu, abides in a flow of things and appearances, dropping it through itself, following changes in the world and without trying to overcome them, follows the Trajectory (Dao). Gunfu is a reaching of skill in the course of constant psychophysical ageing.

It both the purpose and a trajectory to it, this creation of new physical and spiritual unities in the course of Dao comprehension.

Ushu is a private implication gunfu when certain procedures minister to gradual self-disclosure of the person and an autolytic decomposition of its consciousness in world unity. In learning process passage through boundedness of external shapes is attained: by means of comprehension of several complexes was possible to see behind exterior driving its internal essence. The person is in an autolytic decomposition state when consciousness on what it is not fixed, but mirrors everything that it environs, as a mirror.

Thus, formation neokonfutsianstva has confirmed in practice a principle "tajtszi", that is a harmonic combination of opposites in and jan. After all daosizm and konfutsianstvo, apparently, diametrically opposite. «Konfutsy believes in the law, in tradition, in teaching, he believes in morals, crop, a company, formation. Lao-tszy believes in naturalness, individuality, freedom…». Nevertheless these teachings were not at enmity, and argued and as a result chaffers, controversies happened vzaimoobogashchenie and interpenetration. Apparently, east wise men have perceived that the society unstrands under the laws, and the person – on the and in confronting is no point. Society are ambitions, aggression, desires, it politichen, that is is in a greater degree a machismo (jan), and meditation is apolitical, nonaggressive and neambitsiozna is a feminine (in). Therefore to rendezvous them it is possible, and to admix – is not present.

Thus, morals also interioziruetsja and introvertiruetsja, that is the adherent, being itself the integrated world, can leave from temporal vanity, remaining in a pattern, by means of a maintenance in the internal life. «… In the social plot similar introvertivnaja ethics at all its apparent aversion of society and the world which one on a scale of values ranked nonmeasurably more low, rather than the microcosm of the individual which has become by the main subject of philosophy after (((((((centuries, was nevertheless at all a form of protest, and, to the contrary, the moral sanction of this company…» That in itself is influencing chanskogo the Buddhism.

«Those who see me because of my form, and those who follow me because of my voice, commit the irregular efforts. These people will not see me.

Through the Dharma it is necessary to see Buddhas, Through the Dharma skew field their administration, and still true nature of the Dharma will come cannot be perceptible, and nobody can understand it as object »(Diamond Sutra) _ _1. 3. The Chan-Buddhism and its role in formation ушу_ the Buddhism which has originated in India in VI century BC has started to penetrate into China in I century of a new era. However the turning point in history in the history of the Buddhism in China considers III century when it becomes mass enough and temples and monasteries start to occur, the monkhood is shaped, Buddhist texts are translated into the Chinese tongue. Nevertheless in China the Buddhism has clashed with flock of difficulties, overcoming which one and, appreciably, kitaizirujas, it is more narrow in IV century has formed some the Chinese directions:« Three tracts »(sanlundzun or madhjamika) and« dharmovyh characters »(fasjantszun or vidzhnjanavada) which one were rather small. Other schools of the Chinese Buddhism (tantaj, organised in VI century the friar Chzhi; huajan, bottoms are pledged by Du-shunem in VI century, but the founder friar Fatszan who has perished in VIII century) is considered were more popular and huajan, having explicit philosophical directivity, further has stepped over boundaries of China.

It is necessary to mark that on a Buddhism standing in China special type of printing of duplicity lies. And, some singularity of a standing of the Buddhism consisted in acceptance of idea of symbolical perspective of fashions by it (elaborated in ancient China daosami) and requirements ritualisticheskoj harmonies konfutsianstva that allowed to separate from the Buddhism as institute the true, "hidden" sense of wisdom of the Buddha.

The Chinese author Lu Kuan JU (1994) considers that the Buddhism which has fallen into decay on the native land, after almost 10 centuries after the formation has begun victorious procession from China on all Far East region thanks to what ancient Chinese teaching daosov has prepared for this purpose a fertile field. Osho (1994) who states adheres to the same judgement also that if to discard from true daosizma and the Buddhism the latest philosophical and religious beddings it will appear – heart of these two perfect "parents" and more more perfect "child" (chan-Buddhism) is meditation – "chan" which one together with a name of one of parents has organised a name of the newborn "chan-Buddhism".

About interrelations of the Buddhism with konfutsianstvom tells one of the maiden Buddhist missionaries of Canas Senhuej admitted in imperial rooms (the midpoint of III th century): «Chow-gun and Konfutsy in the speeches uncovered close and shown, teaching of the Buddha touches things secret and far», that is the Buddhism, being identified with "internal" aspect of the Chinese tradition, gained a priority as hidden, but an indispensable requirement of all forms of crop.

It is considered that the chan-Buddhism, being purely practical and most well-known school in the Far East chan (zen) which one founder is Bodhidharma (Damo), arrived to China from India in an initiation of VI century, has assimilated school philosophy huajan. The word "chan" is abbreviation from "channa" (sanskr. "dhjana" – meditation, contemplation) points especially practical, ability attitude of the chan-Buddhism.

In connection with the aforesaid it is necessary to resemble that at learning of ancient directions of the Buddhism differentiate three parts: 1. The experience theory (gnoseologijaju and psychology), 2. Metaphysics – in sense of the theory about is true-real or absolute (ontology) and 3. The salvage theory. Practical moral teaching joins these three parts blanket to all directions, and the subject of teaching of the Buddhism is broken down into four so-called «sacred (noble) trues»:

1) the Travail – the general name of that there is everything that is, being subject to life, thereby is more narrow travail: the travail is a process as that.

2) the travail Parent consists in vanity, in omrachennosti, passions which one are at the bottom to that life does not stop, and is prolonged in a perpetually turnover.

3) travail Termination consists in quiescent condition reaching, in suspension of a turnover of life.

4) the Trajectory to travail termination consists in gradual magnification elemntov, directed on salvage, in killing of the parents of life and in reaching of a finite ideal the Trajectory of termination of travails is termed "median" or "octal" (by an amount of steps) a trajectory and is conditionally divided into three parts, first of which, in essence, contains universal, morally-ethical standard and regulations and, in turn, consists of three steps: 1. The correct activities or the correct behaviour – neprichinenie alive, waiving of larceny, violence, irregular sexual behaviour, respect for and ability to forgive an error, making of them the correct outputs.

2. The correct speech – to tell only truth, without being engaged in gossips, not to speak for eyes, not to talk smut.

3. The correct conduct of life – to acquire maintenance of life by fair means.

Following three steps of this trajectory concern primarily meditation practice:

4. The correct effort – a root of any reachings, however an effort demands balance. Intensity and passionate desire of success are major hindrances for last.

5. The correct sensibleness – without tearings of attention to watch passing of material and thought processes, realising the pleasant moments without the greed, offensive without anger, neutral – without apathy.

6. The correct concentration – represents a unipath of consciousness, its capability to remain on object of observation, not for a moment without being sidetracked.

Third of a noble octal trajectory – wisdom:

7. The correct understanding – understanding of that all in the nature, including our skew field and consciousness, is continuously modified by the law cause-effect relations.

8. The correct thinking – thinking free from rage, greed and the cruelty, brimed with compassion and love.

Thus, teaching of the Buddha represents a practical trajectory of self-improvement of the person. Exterior simplicity of this trajectory is apparent and each step of a median trajectory demands deep understanding. Thereupon it is possible to mark that from the maiden six steps leading to wisdom, at least, three imply huge relevance of ageing of consciousness – meditations. The seventh step is intimately bound to fundamental teaching of the Buddhism about Dharmas. The term "Dharma" is many-valued and depending on a context it can be treated as "quality", "law", "pervoelement", «substantsionalnaja a fragment», «the carrier of the sign».

One of fundamental standings of the chan-Buddhism is that any Buddha as persons do not exist. The Buddha is a special state of consciousness. And, though chan-buddiijskaja the monastic tradition implied the strict discipline and the rigid architecture, all adherents chan remembered the well-known paradoxical expression of Lintszi Isjuanja (IX century): «Has met the Buddha – slay the Buddha. Has met the patriarch – slay the patriarch».

Other singularity of the chan-Buddhism is that its adherents, as well as daosy, tested deep distrust to the verbal transmission method of the essence of teaching which one can be assimilated the pupil by means of joint with the teacher of meditative practice. Also, according to chan-Buddhists, the state of the instant clarification can boost special unexpected action on the pupil by means of a hail, shock or meditation on the paradoxical expression "gunan" (japonsk. "Koan"). To gunan conversations «ven yes» (japonsk are close. "mondo") and self-asking – "huatou".

And, at last, along with meditation in a standing sitting chanskie trainers hailed also dynamic meditation during obligatory manual labour or walks, and also during occupations by martial arts. It is obvious that apogee of such meditation the real duel which one, creating extremely dangerous situation could minister, boosted consciousness conversion.

The analogous approach was applied by the famous expert of meditation of Shri Bhagvan Radzhnish (Osho) in days of the youth when it committed the most dangerous leaps from a high railway bridge in the stormy river. In a time of flight to a surface of the river he tested with what incomparable states of blowing-down of mind that further has induced it on looking up of methods of the meditation which have been not connected to such dangerous activities. However Osho always iterated that the true researcher should experiment permanently when the boldness and bravery become principal qualities. «Bravery, – according to Bhagvanu, is the greatest quality in life wherefore without bravery there is no freedom, and without freedom there is no True…».

The chan-Buddhism was a variety of the Buddhism of a Mahajana, that is «a wide trajectory of salvage», escaping envisioning a capability of "a sansara sprocket» (line-ups of births – death) not only for friars, but also for laymen that made possible a close connection between spiritual practice and temporal life activity and contributed in Buddhism propagation in breadth.

It is necessary to note that kitaizatsija the Buddhism has imported to practice of the chan-Buddhist monasteries representing a landlocked community both patterning makrokosm and the microcosm, the interpolated sacramental (bridging conventional konfutsiansky sacramental (a leah) with chanskimi principles), the hypertrophied etiquette, strict observance of the monastic charter, a rigid regulation of movements, gestures and words. That contributed in making of an aerosphere of special severity, education of self-testing and the interior concentration, helping arousing of consciousness of the adherent, waiving of logical thinking thanks to what he could discover in itself(himself) «original essence of the Buddha».

Entering of martial arts in chanskuju to practice connect to a name of Bodhidharmy. He has discovered that the durable continuances of abiding in a static position and an inactive conduct of life not only shatter health shaolinskih friars, impeding their advance by the way of moral-psychological enhancement, but also reduce meditating in the state of catalepsy hindering their spontaneous clarification and intuitive inspiration. Therefore the active, dynamic forms of mental preparation were demanded. Implementation of principles chan in martial arts allowed to tolerate them on orbs of practical life activity of the person. Besides, the unity of mind and body was attained in practice when consciousness operation in an extremal situation quitted on qualitatively diverse level contributing in mobilisation of all concealed resources of a human body that accelerated process of reaching of a clarification. The depthbalanced action of conventional Buddhist methods of psychotraining and is active-dynamic forms of psychophysical ageing not only nejtralizovyvalo a negative effect of static, passive methods of meditation, but also contributed in complex conversion of the person, its harmonic evolution at which one physiological aspects became direct prolongation mental and, in turn, promoted improving of a psychophysical state of the person.

By rules vinai (the monastic charter) which one prohibited to friars to harm alive beings, in China chanskie friars not only were engaged in martial arts, but also enlisted duels with gangsters that quite often led to death of the last. It was justified by that salvage of the life gave to the friar chance of a clarification appropriation already in the yielded degeneration, and loss superimposed to it a trajectory to the further spiritual enhancement salvage should become which one effect.

For the sake of justice it is necessary to mark that monastic charters permitted to friars to apply the art only in a special emergency when there was no different way to prevent characteristic loss. It was categorically prohibited to cripple feeble or to apply ushu to entertainment.

It is necessary to mark that a rule "ahimsa" ("neubienie") as the basic principle of the ratio of Buddhists to violence generally, was included in the visible contradiction that was not forbidden to minister to Buddhists in army though it was prohibited to trade the weapon. Thereupon it is necessary to mark that in India – native land of the Buddhism the caste "kshatriev" ("warriors") always was highly esteemed, as is original with a view of establishment of the order people selected from the environment of the most worthy – the tsar and its helpers – warriors defence and putting in order was which one task. And Buddha Shakjamuni, as it is known, was the son of the tsar and concerned to military estate. It is more than that, it is considered that all great illuminated: the Buddha, Mahavira, Bodhidharma have quitted from kshatriev while braminy (sacrificers) – the highest caste, shudry (untouchable) – the lowest caste, no less than vajshja (dealers, businessmen) have not yielded a pattern of wise men of such gauge. From pages of the book of Carlos Castaneda Don Juan speaks about necessity to be similar to the warrior that to deeply conformably practice of meditation. For the warrior the main thing – to be stainless in own eyes, it is not skewed, does not complain, does not regret, accepting all in life as a personal challenge, continuously being under a look of the exacting attention. The warrior, kshatry risks the life and in it its climax difference.

As to begin to see clearly heart of the Buddha in themselves it was possible only in the act of the activity spontaneous and not limited to prescriptions any prohibitions acquired absurd character and there was their overcoming in implementation process of freedom of spirit and creative understanding of the world. Ushu became one of the major methods of self-education in the chan-Buddhism as envisioned qualitative reorganisation of consciousness of the person. It began to be comprehended in the capacity of a self-valuable trajectory of an appropriation of spiritual harmony.

Meditative practice in the chan-Buddhism is grounded on a spontaneous flow of consciousness to which one the will of the person is not imposed. Thoughts should leak freely and easy up to their complete extinction. Thus the consciousness is compared with ideal a smooth surface of loch, becoming a mirror reflective subjects without the slightest contortions. In the course of meditation there is an occurring of the person to an original choir itself. Ushu became an integral part of a complex of moral and spiritual preparation of friars. Concerning its originating and essence in the literature there are some versions.

The Chinese chan-Buddhist tradition states that the founder of school chan-Buddhist missionary Bodhidharma became the founder and has transmitted the maiden Chinese pupil Huejke teaching about a subitaneous clarification. The fact of appearance of a monastery speaks that the patriarch had in due course a flock of pupils and the followers needing making of a certain centre of "lamp transmission» (the secret essence of teaching of the Buddha) from «hearts to heart».

Other version states that up the time of coming of Bodhidharmy in China, already existed both a monastery, and a community of Buddhist friars, which one 28th patriarch of the Buddhism and 1st – the chan-Buddhism has headed owing to the conclusive religious authority. To ward of the patriarch friars practiced the characteristic methods for the orthodox Buddhism of assidenous meditation. Making of the depthbalanced complex of psychophysical preparation, neutralising the negative action of static and passive forms of psychotraining on physical and a morale of friars became a merit of Bodhidharmy.

Spiritual teaching of Bodhidharmy expressed the formula «two infiltrations and four activities». Two infiltrations were perceived as two methods of reaching of a clarification – by interior spiritual evolution and contemplation («spiritual infiltration») and by fulfilment of the positive practical activities («infiltration by means of activity»). Actually it meant nonseparable connection exterior and interior, physical and mental.

Procedures of spiritual infiltration allowed to find the true state of consciousness and to quit on qualitatively diverse level miroperezhivanija, having returned to the characteristic nature. «If tsi has not found a perfection state also contemplation is not meaningful. When tsi it was abirritated, the skew field is left by all illnesses. Contemplation (chan) and the Trajectory (Dao) simultaneously attain equilibrium.

If the person practicing it, does not concentrate spirit as its Trajectory (Dao) can attain perfection? ». Thus, shaolinskie friars achieved reaching of a state of a clarification by feeding tsi and heart reconciliations.

Under four activities tendered by Bodhidharmoj, were implied requital for harm, lack of temporal aimings, ministering to the Dharma (teaching of the Buddha) and a running to fate. Life was introduced as Dao implementation in the act of a meditative enlightenment in implementation process of characteristic natural properties.

Requital principle for harm predoopredeljal interflow of martial arts to chan-Buddhism postulates: «Saving sutry and the learning Buddhism should strenghten also the skew field and more all pays attention to martial arts.

Martial arts allow to advocate themselves, to defend a monastery, to save up a Buddhist Dharma, to defend virtue and to advocate the state », – the trainer of XV century told shaolinsky Tszjueljun. Martial arts were transmuted into organic prolongation of Buddhist doctrine for this reason they did not conflict to Buddhist ideas neprichinenija alive and enhancements of virtuous acts. Teaching ushu on villages was perceived by friars as the form of the sermon of Buddhist ideas. Principles ushu, thanks to the illuminated spirit teaching, were set up and perceived in the capacity of trajectories of interior self-realisation, there was a waiving of submissions about martial arts as about cracked eggs methods. Act (vej) – the active human interference in naturalness of the interior nature of the entity – were contrasted not with act (uvej) – to a running to an is natural-spontaneous course of world development when things are allowed to be displayed in them"takovosti".

In the chan-Buddhism there is a motive of a creative seclusion at implementation of spiritual looking up. In ushu this motive of individualism has led to appearance of foremans of the hermits trained not at people, and at inhabitants of heaven: going by true one is bound to remain internally. The instant and unexpected clarification – a light exposure in consciousness began to be contrasted with practice of gradual and long self-improvement.

The Chansky tradition has transmuted any type of activity into art of enhancement of spirit. Martial arts became a complex constituent chanskih arts where also entered a calligraphy, painting, stihoslozhenie and park art. Ushu it is considered any more only as a method of a conduct of combat or a national entertainment. This unity spiritual and practical in the course of fostering, first of all, a spiritual initiation.

N. V.Abaev does not discover the answer why shaolinskaja the school ushu has strongly pronounced offensive character and to shocks in it is attached much more meaning, than to protective actions. A.A.Maslov explains it primordial Chinese practicalness: the strict Indian principle ahimsy (neprichinenija alive) has acquired the higher virtuous rationality: if attack, it is necessary to be advocated actively, differently the fulfilment of good deeds can conclude prematurely. The principle ahimsy combined with konfutsianskim a humanity principle – to robust, reasonable, corresponding vital realities.

Distinctiveness shaolintsjuan is its more dynamical and rigid character in comparison with martial arts of a Taoist direction: in shaolinskom ushu sharp rectilinear shocks, powerful shocks in a leap are used. But, at the same time, clearly the principle of a harmonic combination firm and soft, force and wilt, active and passive, defences and offensives is tracked. It was possible at the expense of alternating of a highest concentration of force at shock and relaxings at a hiatus, prompt passages from the active offensive activities to defensive receptions, matings of softness of movements with ruggedness at the moment of application of the force. Unlike the orthodox Buddhism, the chan-Buddhism admitted involvement of friars in various types of activity as was considered that the person who has taken a trajectory of moral and mental enhancement, cannot find the complete and ultimate clarification, without helping other people. Hence, its obligation – to participate in temporal affairs, converting this activity for the blessing of characteristic salvage. In process of chan-Buddhism development the output has been drawn on sinfulness of barren contemplation and that any forms of social activity, including occupations by martial arts, are higher level of practice of moral-psychological enhancement. A control with the difficulties hindering reaching of object in views was the major requirement of a surviving of the person. For chan-Buddhists the control for reaching of a state of a clarification consisted in remission of the emotionally-psychological orb and is simultaneous in contributing to a clarification of other people. This control guessed usage of the diversified methods of action on consciousness and subconsciousness of an individual, including violent acts (shocks, jerks, hails) if they contributed in a clarification ultimate goal were admitted also. In it it was implemented mahajansky a principle of the vigorous activity for the purpose of salvage of all alive beings and the violence directed to the blessing, any more was not considered as violence.

Being a means of education of combativity, martial arts in the chan-Buddhism originally acquired is active-offensive character though could be applied with a view of a selfdefence. Reacting against aggressive environmental factors, they simultaneously were a means practical implementation chanskogo a clarification ideal. Therefore, even if Bodhidharma did not accept any involvement in development of receptions shaolinskogo ushu, the methods of meditation implemented by it and idealised standings of the Buddhism in itself yield strong reasons for its honouring as key figure in the course of formation chanskih traditions in China.

Konfutsiansky philosophy and its influencing on ushu

The founder konfutsianstva the wise man and the philosopher of an antiquity of Kun Futszy (in Latin perusal of Konfutsy), living in 551 — 479 BC and formulated basic principles of the teaching in transactions «Lun juj» («is considered Opinions and lectures»). Konfutsy it is considered the maiden authentic creator of the philosophical theory in China, the spokesman who has realised of spiritual tradition of Zhu – organised, scientists-intellectuals, whose naming became then a terminological label for Confucians. He supposed that a company governors according to the norms of Dye (grace) spotting regulations of behaviour of the person in monogynopaedium and a company, a certain universal moral worth should control sovershennomudrye. To control, from the point of view of Konfutsija, means to refine tempers force of an example and by means of special lectures. The company was considered in the form of uniform monogynopaedium, and the principle "sjao" (filial virtue) meant respect under the ratio not only to parents, but also to all seniors on age and a standing, for example to the foreman at school ushu.

Lack of any individualist initiation in human life wherefore concerns of monogynopaedium and a company are always primary was envisioned – this principle has laid down in a bottom of the majority of schools ushu, considering as tight, solid monogynopaedium.

Not less the great value had the self-improvement of the person which was an indispensable requirement on a trajectory of reaching of qualities «the noble husband» (tszjuntszy). Thus to physical self-improvement it was given not less meanings, than spiritually-intellectual: regulations and norms of the content of a skew field in harmony assigned not only eutrophy and a chaste conduct of life, but also an indispensable motor performance.

At konfutsianskih wise men the ideal company is introduced in the form of strictly arranged, hierarchic in which one everyone is bound to fulfil strictly that social role which one is spotted either a social rank, or a civil cognation level. This company where people, naturally, are unequal, but everyone should make that is intended it by "predetermining" (mines). Thus Confucians supported certain property equalisation ground known saying of Konfutsija: «Affliction not that is not enough, affliction that disparity».

The Konfutsiansky philosophy occupied dominant positions in system of the social state social and moral worth, therefore it is no wonder that the applicable norms and regulations directly touched martial arts, becoming an integral part Chinese ushu.

In a bottom of harmonic education of the fighter the unity of spiritual enhancement and battle practice was necessary. Implementation of natural purity of human spirit was attained on a trajectory spiritually moral education through martial arts when the fighter comprehended norms of battle virtue (ude).

Known foremans in the transactions gave more attentions to presentation of concept of a virtuous act, and at all the specification statement of shocks, respect and modesty of the fighter put above victory in a duel. Behaviour regulations followed not learn, but to dip in consciousness that made by their bottom of the true nature of the person. Than above there was a skill of the fighter and the more skilfully its technician, the more company needed warranties of that art of the foreman will be never converted to the detriment of people.

Education of the modesty expressing in implication of respect not only to the teacher and colleagues on school, but also to all associates that matched to generality of a principle of sincerity was the first step on a comprehension trajectory ude. Demonstrating of receptions ushu without explicit necessity has been punishable, as has been non-comparable to an ideal fashion of the follower ushu.

The trainer in ushu helps to clear original nezamutnennuju human nature (sin), its congenital pure properties then the main spiritual process remains under the authority of the interior teacher. Instruction ushu is first of all not mastering by techniques, and process of formation of consciousness in which one course an important role such qualities of the pupil, as severity play, rest of soul and slowness.

Battle virtue assigned to do the utmost for duel preventing, but in case of its initiation to apply hardness and resoluteness to victory reaching. Peculiar application of humanity as she demands major bravery and an exposure consisted in it and is born in the course of constant overcoming itself. The humanity running implies not only tolerance, modesty, philanthrophy, but also hardness, severity. Humanity was perceived as harmonising factor between the world and the person, therefore skill was first of all the internal quality making the person not contradicting world. Thus behind modesty of the foreman ushu its spiritual invincibility was concealed.

The principle of humanity did not eliminate in certain events of application of cruelty. The person who was not following sainted standards of behaviour, could not count on application to itself of concept of humanity, therefore to spirit konfutsianstva killing of the fighter who has outraged regulations of the school or norm of dialogue with the teacher as this person was already defective was quite compatible and could not be considered in the capacity of a member of the company possessing characteristic humanity in relation to another.

ushu the teacher admitted charters of schools the person perceiving celestial virtuous power (Dye) and transmitting it to the pupils. Therefore the respect for the teacher became an indispensable requirement of user-to-user transmission of good force of the Root to the pupils joining thus to the true celestial skill.

Konfutsiansky regulations of loyalty and implicit subordination by the senior demanded of pupils of a strict running to oracles of the teacher, and from heirs of tradition of school – caretaking and augmentation of experience of prior breeds. The knowledge transfer capability exceptional «from heart to heart», on the one hand warranted «the true transmission» teachings, and on the other hand, hoisted authority of the trainer on inaccessible altitude as without its help, only by means of written manuals, it was impossible to gain original knowledge. The graduate of school ushu was in irredeemable lifelong to a debt to the trainer and seniors that was predetermined by character of interrelations agrees konfutsianskomu to a canon. They were united by participation in blanket knowledge – to secrets of school carefully preserved throughout centuries. Besides, saving of internal principles of school from eyes of casual people was one of qualities of battle virtue, therefore the engineering should not be demonstrated without emergency, specially in duels with quoters of other schools if it did not affect honour of the teacher or "monogynopaedium" as a whole.

As soon as the neophyte was accepted in school and transpassed a teacher’s club threshold in which one, as a rule, it was necessary not only to be trained in it, but also to live, it should be released voluntarily from all temporal cares and temptations – nothing should hinder case of comprehension of knowledge. Forming of the rigorous person, not only possessing multiple-purpose physical preparation became an instruction ultimate goal, but also steady is moral and psychologic. It was contributed by family bonds with which one the school connected pupils and trainers that allowed last to check all sides of life activity of the pupils throughout many years and to rebuild if necessary psychophysical architecture of their person.

(Leah) an instruction formality at each school ushu based on strictly certain sacramental. Konfutsy considered that all life pattern of the person should be marshalled according to sacramental. In particular it has touched martial arts. Sacramental always was a bottom of outer side of instruction at each school ushu. According to it enrolment of pupils, the mutual salutions of the teacher and pupils were performed, the system of daily ratios was added. The most relevant sacramentals were ceremony of worship an altar of gods-patrons and the founding father (pervopatriarhu) schools, ceremony has begun also the ageing terminations, an interchange of greetings before a duel or during embodiment of fresh-killed exercises, a rule of accomplishment of complexes of the formal exercises, ceremony of award to pupils of the alternate levels, deliveries of colour belts, school relics.

Sacramental since the maiden days of abiding in school became a standard of behaviour and the life form for pupils. Originally it contributed in orderliness of training process, and then predetermined all sides of existence of the person in world around. The slightest violation of sacramental was strictly punished, as it was not only abuse of regulations and school prescriptions, but also an encroachment on the order of things expressed in demands of the charter of school and consecrated with religious ceremonies installed by the Root.

«The noble husband» (tszjuantszy) should combine ideally in monogynopaedium such qualities, as honouring of sacramentals, justice and philanthrophy.

Characteristic for konfutsianstva the concept of nonseparable integrity of crop demanded from tszjuantszy a harmonic combination in itself military and civil has begun. Thus the military initiation was appreciated above civil as represented the most appreciable part of the deepest sacramental which was matching up the person with the higher sacral forces. Ritualization of military practice became that means with which one help the spiritual and cultural sense of martial arts adding purely problem purposes ushu was begun to see clearly.

The cultural-ordering initiation (ven) was added by military advantages of the person, therefore is more narrow since IV century BC to officials and aristocrats without fail it was necessary to be engaged in military arts. In consciousness of each member of the Chinese company steady setting on harmony military and civil was added. The combination of these two initiations gradually began to be perceived as the character of harmony in the person thanks to which one it became capable napityvat the good power all Heavenly Empire.

The unity of the military and civil was embodied in six trues (wisdom, humanity, perfection in thoughts, justice, devotion and harmony), in six regulations of behaviour (filial respect, fraternal affection, love to members of the clan, love to relatives on conjugal ties, availabilities to incur liability and the help feeble and poor) and in six arts (sacramentals, music, shooting from an onion, control of chariots, a calligraphy and the mathematician). Gradually the concept of a military initiation became essential bar of life of the Chinese and communicated in its consciousness not only with management battles or physical enhancement, but also with understanding of ritual depth of all things and processes that has predetermined passage ushu from battle handicraft in a type of spiritual practice and a sacralization of all complex of martial arts.

The true governor or the great commander is «the noble husband» who was most harmonic combines the military and civil has begun and completes one through another. Despite vozobladanie in medieval China doctrines «the civil and military go miscellaneous trajectories», as before it was necessary for professional warrior to know various forms of sacramental, to be unmade in music and a calligraphy, and to the official – to possess blanket skills of ownership of the weapon and control receptions.

The regular involvement in a contest on a control (tszjuedi or shoubo) matched to an ideal konfutsianskogo «the noble husband» though the spirit of competitiveness had thus no great value.

Control of warriors consisted in ability of the commander to place them on the places that matched to harmonising function of the Root. The appeal of Konfutsija to «correcting of names» (chzhenmin) meant a certain sacred ordering at which one thing function matches to the form of its usage, and Heavenly Empire is returned in a state of original harmony.

Natural properties of the person in ideal alternative should coincide with its function and then all natural appearances and subjects will come to an absolute consonance with each other. In practice it expressed that each warrior gained the place according to capabilities and there was a necessity for yield of graduation of military skill.

Konfutsianstvo demanded of the person of the continuous spiritual and moral enhancement. In the course of working on by self «the noble husband» should work out in itself such qualities, as composure, bravery, an exposure, self-control and resoluteness. Any training of the follower konfutsianstva has been intended for skew field and spirit coercion in correspondence with character of facing nymas of the relevant public tasks. Practice «cleanings up tsi» by means of will in konfutsianskoj traditions was intended to have a capability constant mental and moral itself regulations.

Principles konfutsianstva have been integrated with the most significant standings daosizma and the Buddhism. Thus, further development of philosophical thought of China has gone on the way vzaimoobogashchenija and vzaimodopolnenija, and at all on the way vzaimootritsanija and controls that has discovered the reflex and in the subsequent systems of martial arts.

Much is trajectories, but the Great Trajectory not to discover on a card.

Much there is names, but it only words, and the essence them not to transmit: After all bezymjan also we do not name a creation radiant, But any thing has completely not untitled mother.

This secret waits for an enlightenment.

Only desires the deprived eye capable to uncover it; the Same who is entangled by passion circuits, Sees only exterior appearances a choir.

(Lao-tszy, the Dao of Dye a jing, item 1)

Страница 1 из 1212345»10...Последняя »